Perspectives on Food-Safety Issues of Animal-Derived Foods
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: University of Arkansas Press
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1. A Brief History of the Food Safety Consortium
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In 1986, after the CBS newsmagazine “60 Minutes” broadcast a program about food safety, Arkansas poultry industry leaders were concerned that more work needed to be done on at least two fronts: to inform the public of industry’s efforts toward safer food and to support a cohesive national food-safety research effort. ...
Preharvest Foodborne Pathogen Ecology and Intervention Strategies
2. Novel Strategies for the Preharvest Control of Campylobacter in Poultry
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Ingestion of food products contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni or coli is one of the main causes of foodborne infections. These pathogens are usually reported among the leading causes of laboratory-confirmed foodborne illnesses in the United States and in many other countries around the world ...
3. Colonization and Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Swine
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Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) have emerged over the last several decades as a significant cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Approximately 5–10% of people clinically infected by these bacteria develop a systemic disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome, ...
4. Traversing the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract: Salmonella Survival and Pathogenesis
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As one of the most consumed meats in the world, the presence of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella in pork is a food-safety concern. Furthermore, Salmonella in swine is an animal health issue, costing pork producers over $100 million annually. Based on the National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 report ...
5. On-Farm Interventions to Reduce Epizootic Bacteria in Food-Producing Animals and the Environment
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Foodborne disease infections are estimated to afflict more than 76 million people in the United States each year (Mead et al. 1999). Campylobacter and Salmonella are responsible for most cases of the bacterial foodborne disease, causing more than 1.9 and 1.3 million infections, respectively (Mead et al. 1999). ...
6. Colonization and Pathogenesis of Foodborne Salmonella in Egg-Laying Hens
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Salmonellosis is a foodborne disease that affects over 1.4 million people each year in the United States alone, of which more than 500 cases are fatal (CDC 2004). Frenzen et al. (1999) has estimated the annual cost of foodborne Salmonella infection to be nearly $2.3 billion in the United States. ...
Postharvest Foodborne Pathogen Ecology
7. Preharvest Food-Safety Issues That Carry Over into the Plant
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Over the years, the USDA has instituted more strict regulations in the processing plant with regard to the presence of pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, on poultry carcasses. The intention of these regulations is to create an opportunity for continuous improvement by setting a sampling protocol that 20% ...
8. Validating HACCP for Small Plants
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Validation of critical limits or steps at a critical control point (CCP) in a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan is the process of documenting that the limit is based on appropriate scientific principles and sound operating practices. Validation data demonstrate that the process examined produces ...
9. Campylobacter jejuni in Biofilms: A Possible Mechanism of Survival Inside and Outside the Chicken Host
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Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial diarrhea in the United States (CDC 2007). There are approximately 2.4 million cases of campylobacteriosis in the United States each year (Friedman 2000). C. jejuni is considered part of the normal flora within the gastrointestinal tract of chickens ...
10. Beef-Safety Research Conducted by the Food Safety Consortium
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When the Food Safety Consortium was founded in 1989, one of the identified areas of research was beef food safety. Research in beef safety was progressing at a slow pace. The national focus during that period was directed to the control of Salmonella in raw poultry products. One of the food-safety concerns relating to beef that ...
11. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in Raw and Ready-to-Eat Foods and Food-Processing Environments and Intervention Strategies for Control
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Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that causes listeriosis. L. monocytogenes along with Salmonella and Toxoplasma is responsible for more than 75% of foodborne deaths caused by known pathogens. Specifically, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that L. monocytogenes accounts for an estimated ...
Rapid Methods and Detection Strategies for Foodborne Pathogens
12. Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbial Food Safety
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Rapid methods and automation in microbiology is a dynamic area in applied microbiology dealing with the study of improved methods in the isolation, early detection, characterization, and enumeration of microorganisms and their products in clinical, pharmaceutical, food, industrial, and environmental samples. ...
13. Genomic Approaches to Bacterial Pathogens Using Transposon Mutagenesis: Food-Safety Applications
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One main characteristic feature of bacterial pathogens is their ability to cope with the adverse conditions in the environment and host. Bacterial pathogens can reach and survive in host microenvironments that are usually not accessible to nonpathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, pathogens typically possess special mechanisms to overcome ...
14. Advances in Antibody-Based Technologies for Listeria monocytogenes
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In the United States each year, foodborne illnesses affect 6 million to 80 million persons, cause 9,000 deaths, and cost an estimated $5 billion. Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major foodborne bacterial pathogens and causes over 2,518 infections, 2,322 hospitalizations, and 504 deaths annually in the United States (Mead et al. 1999). ...
15. The Potential for Application of Foodborne Salmonella Gene Expression Profiling Assays in Postharvest Poultry Processing
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Pathogenic contamination of foods is a threat to human health and has the potential for causing fatalities. Foodborne pathogens have been estimated to cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States each year (Mead et al. 1999). ...
Antibiotics and Antimicrobialsin Food Safety: Perspectives and Strategies
16. Quantitative Profiling of the Intestinal Microbiota of Drug-Free Broiler Chickens
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The withdrawal or outright ban on feeding subtherapeutic antibiotics to livestock for health and performance is an issue confronting the poultry production industries.* Following the initial discovery of the growth-enhancement effect by Jukes and Williams (Niewold 2007) the use of subtherapeutic growth-promoting antibiotics ...
17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Foodborne Pathogens in Conventional and Organic Livestock Operations
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Foodborne diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality each year, and hundreds of millions of people worldwide suffer from these illnesses (Allos et al. 2004; Meng and Doyle 2002). According to the estimate by the Centers for Disease Control, foodborne pathogens account for approximately 76 million diseases, ...
18. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Raw Poultry Products
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Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with 21.7 cases every 100,000 persons in the United States (Anonymous 1999; Altekruse et. al. 2006) and 30.2 cases every 100,000 persons in Canada (Galanis 2007). Although outbreaks of campylobacteriosis are rare and usually linked to the consumption of raw milk ...
19. Plant Extracts, Natural Antimicrobials, and Irradiation to Improve Microbial Safety and Quality of Meat Products
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Foodborne pathogens are a great concern to consumers and cause significant economic losses for the food industry. For example, the economic loss associated with Salmonella (nontyphoidal serotypes only) and E. coli O157:H7 was estimated to be $2.8 billion by the Economic Resource Service (ERS-USDA 2005). ...
Emerging Issues in Food Safety
20. Assessing Consumer Concerns and Perceptions of Food-Safety Risks and Practices: Methodologies and Outcomes
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Consumers living in the United States have access to the most abundant and one of the safest food supplies in the world, and until 2007, over 80% of those surveyed indicated that they were confident in the safety of the food supply. The 2006 recall of spinach due to the presence of Esherichia coli O157:H7 and the discovery of an adulterant ...
21 Food Safety of Natural and Organic Poultry
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The 1,600 members of the Organic Trade Association (OTA) that grow and process organic foods recently released preliminary findings from its survey of manufacturers (OTA 2007). Organic foods accounted for nearly 3% of total U.S. food sales and meat/fish/poultry sales showed the largest annual market growth percentage ...
22. Alternative and Organic Beef Production: Food-Safety Issues
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Beef is the second most popular organic meat item behind poultry. Sales of organic beef have been increasing steadily based on consumers’ perception that organic beef is more nutritious, better for the environment, contains minimal levels of pesticides, is produced without growth hormones and antibiotics, is not genetically engineered ...
23. The Consumers’ Perspective on the Safety of Organic Foods: An Opportunity for Future Research
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Organic food production and sales continue to be one of the fastest-growing areas of U.S. agriculture. Once limited to farmer’s markets and health food stores, organic foods are now part of mainstream supermarkets and club stores (Organic Trade Association 2006a). All 50 states in the United States have some amount of certified ...
24. Future Prospects for Advancing Food-Safety Research in Food Animals
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Although great strides have been made by the scientific community in understanding the biology and dissemination of foodborne pathogens, recent media headlines publicizing pathogenic bacterial contamination of foods such as spinach and peanut butter indicate that foodborne disease is still a high-profile issue for the consumer. ...
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Page Count: 400
Illustrations: illustrations, tables, charts
Publication Year: 2010