Legacies of the War on Poverty
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Half Title Page, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Table of Contents
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Tables and Figures
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About the Authors
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Martha J. Bailey is associate professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Michigan, faculty affiliate of the National Poverty Center, research associate of the Population Studies Center, and faculty research fellow at the Na-Sheldon danziger is H. J. Meyer Distinguished University Professor of Public Policy and director of the National Poverty Center at the Gerald R. Ford School of ...
Chapter 1. Legacies of the War on Poverty
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Many Americans live on the outskirts of hope—some because of their poverty, and some be-cause of their color, and all too many because of both. Our task is to help replace their despair This administration today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in Amer-ica. I urge this Congress and all Americans to join with me in that effort.It will not be a short or easy struggle, no single weapon or strategy will suffice, but we shall ...
Part I. Increasing Human Capital, Employment, and Earnings
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Chapter 2. Head Start Origins and Impacts
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Head Start is an early childhood education, health, and parenting interven-tion started in 1965 as part of the War on Poverty by the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), and remains one of the federal government’s primary tools aimed at reducing disparities in children’s outcomes before they enroll in K- 12 education. The importance of early childhood education, emphasized at the inception of the War on Poverty, has only grown over time with our improved understanding of the developmental plasticity of children during the earliest years ...
Chapter 3. The K-12 Education Battle
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In a special congressional address on January 12, 1965, President Johnson de-clared a “national goal of Full Educational Opportunity.” In so doing, he ex-panded the battlefield in the War on Poverty to include education at all levels, offering as a new weapon a large infusion of federal funds to support programs for the poor. Three months later, his proposal for K- 12 education was signed into law. Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) autho-rized $1 billion in new federal funding ($7 billion in 2009 dollars) for supplemental ...
Chapter 4. Supporting Access to Higher Education
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With the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (EOA) and the Higher Educa-tion Act of 1965 (HEA 1965), President Johnson began an unprecedented period of support to help students pay for higher education. Unlike pre-vious policies, which targeted only a limited set of students, the War on Poverty introduced and funded broad- based postsecondary programs meant to help any student prepared academically for college. With a combination of financial aid and college preparatory programs, these programs were the first major step to ...
Chapter 5. Workforce Development Programs
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In early 1964, when President Lyndon B. Johnson first announced the War on Poverty, employment and training programs for the poor barely existed in the United States at the federal level. The only federal manpower program of the era, the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA), was launched in 1962 with relatively little funding or fanfare. Its main purpose was to counteract a bout of “structural unemployment” that many at the time feared would arise as a result of ongoing automation in the economy and worker displacements by technology....
Part II. Raising Incomes and Living Standards
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Chapter 6. The Safety Net for Families with Children
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In his 1964 State of the Union address, President Lyndon B. Johnson made a statement that still seems remarkable today: “This administration, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America . . . It will not be a short or easy struggle, no single weapon or strategy will suffice, but we shall not This chapter considers three of the major legacies of the War on Poverty’s efforts to strengthen the safety net for low- income families with children: expanded food and nutrition programs, that is, Food Stamps–Supplemental Nutrition Assistance ...
Chapter 7. The Safety Net for the Elderly
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When Lyndon Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, the poverty rate was 19 percent, a rate deemed far too high for a nation with the wealth and resources of the United States. Yet far worse was the poverty rate for those age sixty- five or older, which stood at 35 percent in 1959 (data for 1964 are not available), more than twice the 17 percent rate among non- elderly adults.1 Despite this inauspicious start, the War on Poverty has been a success for the elderly by almost any measure. In the most recent data available, the poverty ...
Chapter 8. Performance and Legacy of Housing Policies
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This chapter assesses the War on Poverty’s performance and legacy in the area of urban housing policy. Several decades after President Lyndon B. Johnson launched the War on Poverty, President Ronald Reagan in his own 1988 State of the Union address famously claimed that the War on Poverty repre-sented a massive failure of government policies to achieve their goals:My friends, some years ago, the Federal Government declared war on poverty, and poverty won. Today the Federal Government has 59 major welfare programs and ...
Part III. Improving Access to Medical Care and Health
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Chapter 9. Health Programs for Non-Elderly Adults and Children
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Millions of our citizens do not now have a full measure of opportunity to achieve and to enjoy good health. Millions do not now have protection or security against the economic effects of sickness. And the time has now arrived for action to help them attain that opportunity and to Almost twenty years after President Harry Truman spoke these words in his call to Congress for national health insurance, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Medicaid and Medicare bills into law. The programs were de-signed to provide health- care coverage for senior citizens, the disabled, children, ...
Chapter 10. Medicare and Medicaid
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The War on Poverty created two health insurance programs, Medicare and Medicaid, which have had profound effects on the elderly and non- elderly (for details about both programs, see box 10.1). The War on Poverty also cre-ated community health centers (CHC) to expand the supply of physicians, nurses, and dentists in rural and low- income areas where assuring financial access to With these programs, the War on Poverty’s architects hoped to reduce docu-mented disparities in use of care—among the elderly and between the elderly and ...
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Page Count: 324
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: National Poverty Series on Poverty and Public Policy