Racial and Gender Segregation in Private Sector Employment Since the Civil Rights Act
Publication Year: 2012
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
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The Russell Sage Foundation, one of the oldest of America’s general purpose foundations, was established in 1907 by Mrs. Margaret Olivia Sage for “the improvement of social and living conditions in the United States.” The Foundation seeks to fulfill this mandate by fostering the development and dissemination of knowledge about the country’s political, social, and economic problems. While the Foundation endeavors to assure the accuracy and ...
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List of Tables and Figures
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About the Authors
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Kevin Stainback is associate professor of sociology at Purdue University.Donald Tomaskovic-Devey is professor of sociology at the University of ...
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This project would not have been possible without the support, conver-sations, and guidance of many people. Sheryl Skaggs has pride of place in both understanding the value of the EEO-1 data as a research tool and figuring out how to gain access to them. At the Equal Employment Op-portunity Commission (EEOC), Ronald Edwards and Bliss Cartwright ...
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...(1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or other-wise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his com-pensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; or(2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants for ...
Part I. National Equal Opportunity Politics
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Chapter 1. Documenting Desegregation
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Title vii of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was intended to reduce U.S. status-based employment discrimination. Its passage has been praised as one of the central moments in the extension of social, economic, and po-litical rights to all adult citizens in the United States. Ironically, it also stands, historically, as one of the U.S. government’s most controversial ...
Chapter 2. Hyper-Segregation in the Pre–Civil Rights Period
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Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, employment segre-gation was deeply institutionalized in U.S. workplaces. During this his-torical moment, people in the United States understood that white men would occupy the most desirable jobs and hold authority over other groups. It was also assumed that women of all races and nonwhites of all ...
Chapter 3. The Era of Uncertainty, 1966 to 1972
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In 1966 workplaces were extremely segregated by race and gender. We suspect that there had already been some minor declines in race segrega-tion as a reaction to the civil rights movement, the passage of fair employ-ment practice laws in many northern and western states, and President Kennedy’s 1961 executive order admonishing federal contractors take af-...
Chapter 4. The Short Regulatory Decade, 1972 to 1980
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A great deal changed after 1972. The federal regulatory apparatus be-came much more clearly defined and active. The women’s movement emerged as a powerful political force. In response, Congress and the courts made clear that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibited “sex”-based discrimination and segregation in employment. Companies now ...
Chapter 5. Desegregation in the Neoliberal Era, 1980 to 2005
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When ronald reagan became president, the regulatory environment changed again; the EEOC and OFCCP were instructed to back off their enforcement mission, and whatever proactive commitment to equal op-portunity that had once emanated from the executive branch ceased. While Reagan was blocked by a Democratic Congress from completely ...
Part II. Local Inequality Regimes
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Chapter 6. Local Labor Market Competition and New Status Hierarchies
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While examining the influence of national politics on desegregation trends, we have observed that desegregation trajectories vary dramati-cally by both demographic status and historical period. In this chapter, we document regional convergences in the patterns of segregation and access to good-quality jobs. When the civil rights movement was at its ...
Chapter 7. Sector and Industry Segregation Trajectories
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Workplaces are not all alike. They produce different products and ser-vices, with distinct mixes of technology, divisions of labor, and market structure. In this chapter, we investigate the distribution of desegregation patterns across sectors of the economy and in different industries. Large-scale shifts in the nature of production are reflected in the sectors of the ...
Chapter 8. Contemporary Workplace Dynamics
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We have been focusing on the influence of political, industry, and spatial environments on workplace equal employment opportunity trajectories. In most approaches to organizational dynamics, it is such environmental factors that motivate firms to adjust their behavior. Capitalism, for exam-ple, is a dynamic economic system. That dynamism is thought to arise ...
Chapter 9. National to Local Segregation Trajectories
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History unfolds as a series of local events and cultural accounts. Local action produces local stories and understandings that over time accumu-late into behaviors, trajectories of social change, or periods of equilibrium. These narratives are both material, embodied in practices, relationships, organizations, and the like, and cultural, retold as stories of what is natu-...
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Page Count: 412
Publication Year: 2012