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The Consequences of Counterterrorism

Martha Crenshaw

Publication Year: 2010

The 9/11 terrorist attacks opened America’s eyes to a frightening world of enemies surrounding us. But have our eyes opened wide enough to see how our experiences compare with other nations’ efforts to confront and prevent terrorism? Other democracies have long histories of confronting both international and domestic terrorism. Some have undertaken progressively more stringent counterterrorist measures in the name of national security and the safety of citizens. The Consequences of Counterterrorism examines the political costs and challenges democratic governments face in confronting terrorism.Using historical and comparative perspectives, The Consequences of Counterterrorism presents thematic analyses as well as case studies of Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Japan, and Israel. Contributor John Finn compares post-9/11 antiterrorism legislation in the United States, Europe, Canada, and India to demonstrate the effects of hastily drawn policies on civil liberties and constitutional norms. Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Jean-Luc Marret assert that terrorist designation lists are more widespread internationally than ever before. The authors examine why governments and international organizations use such lists, how they work, and why they are ineffective tools. Gallya Lahav shows how immigration policy has become inextricably linked to security in the EU and compares the European fear of internal threats to the American fear of external ones. A chapter by Dirk Haubrich explains variation in the British government’s willingness to compromise democratic principles according to different threats. In his look at Spain and Northern Ireland, Rogelio Alonso asserts that restricting the rights of those who perpetrate ethnonationalist violence may be acceptable in order to protect the rights of citizens who are victims of such violence. Jeremy Shapiro considers how the French response to terrorist threats has become more coercive during the last fifty years. Israel’s “war model” of counterterrorism has failed, Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger argue, and is largely the result of the military elite’s influence on state institutions. Giovanni Cappocia explains how Germany has protected basic norms and institutions. In contrast, David Leheny stresses the significance of change in Japan’s policies. Preventing and countering terrorism is now a key policy priority for many liberal democratic states. As The Consequences of Counterterrorism makes clear, counterterrorist policies have the potential to undermine the democratic principles, institutions, and processes they seek to preserve.

Published by: Russell Sage Foundation

Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Contributors

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pp. vii-viii

Acknowledgements

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pp. ix-x

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-30

In examining the political consequences of government countermeasures designed to combat terrorism and the policy outcomes that change democratic institutions, processes, and values, this volume addresses two important but often-neglected questions: What are the political consequences of...

Part 1. Governance, Civil Liberties, and Securitization

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pp. 31-32

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2. Counterterrorism Regimes and the Rule of Law: The Effects of Emergency Legislation on Separation of Powers, Civil Liberties, and Other Fundamental Consitutional Norms

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pp. 33-93

In this chapter, we consider the long-term effects of post-9/11 counterterrorism policies on judiciaries and national constitutions. Our emphasis is on counterterrorism regimes in Europe and Canada, with occasional comparisons to Israel, Japan, India, and Australia. My approach is broadly...

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3. The Uses and Abuses of Terrorist Designation Lists

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pp. 94-129

Terrorist designation lists are policy instruments that identify people and organizations believed to be responsible for or supportive of terrorist acts. People and entities listed become subject to sanctions and judicial prosecution. Although terrorist designation lists predate the terrorist...

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4. Immigration Policy as Counterterrorism: The Effects of Security on Migration and Border Control in the European Union

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pp. 130-176

Although the political aims of terrorism are government concessions that will further a cause (Friedland and Merari 1985; Long 1990), its psychological effects of fear and anxiety (Crenshaw 1986) often produce unintended consequences. Ironically, the jihadist terrorist charges against Western liberal societies provoked those societies to adopt counterterrorist policy...

Part 2. National Counteterrorism Responses

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pp. 177-178

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5. The Social Contract and the Three Types of Terrorism: Democratic Society in the United Kingdom After 9/11 and 7/7

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pp. 179-212

The United Kingdom has a long history of fighting terrorism. This chapter analyzes the threat that terrorism has posed to the country, the evolution of the country’s policy to counter it, and the effectiveness of that policy in bringing terrorist suspects to justice, as well as the unforeseen...

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6. Confronting Terrorism in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country: Challenges for Democracy and Legitimacy

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pp. 213-254

This chapter analyzes the effects of specific counterterrorist policies aimed at the Basque Freedom and Homeland Organization (Euskadi ta Askatasuna, ETA) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) on the societies in which they were implemented. Since a comprehensive examination of the...

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7. French Responses to Terrorism from the Algerian War to the Present

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pp. 255-284

France has long been on the “bleeding edge” of terrorism, confronting terrorism in all its guises from bomb-throwing anarchists to transnational networks. This chapter briefly surveys the French experience with counterterrorism over the last fifty years, chronicling the actions...

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8. Germany's Response to 9/11: The Importance of Checks and Balances

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pp. 285-334

The post-9/11 counterterrorism policies enacted in different countries display important differences. In the United States, the emergence of an international terrorist threat on an unprecedented scale has led to a great increase in the power of the executive (see, for example, Heymann...

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9. The Consequences of Counterterrorist Policies in Isreal

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pp. 335-366

Violent attacks against civilians for the purpose of terror constituted an integral part of the strategies carried out by both Jewish and Arab factions in Palestine during the years of the British Mandate, especially after 1936 (Kimmerling and Migdal 2002; Lachman 1982; Lustick 1995)...

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10. Terroroism as Conventional Security for Democracies: America, Japan, and Military Action in the Asia-Pacific

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pp. 367-398

Because of their vulnerability both to attack and to political exploitation, democracies face in terrorism a particularly double-edged threat. As other chapters in this volume note, open and liberal societies present a wide array of targets to organizations that would use the space afforded...

Index

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pp. 399-422


E-ISBN-13: 9781610447287
Print-ISBN-13: 9780871540737

Page Count: 432
Publication Year: 2010