Old Assumptions, New Realities
Ensuring Economic Security for Working Families in the 21st Century
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
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PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
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This book is about gender inequality in the labor market. We approach this project as scholars of social inequality with a particular interest in how the processes that shape inequality also cloud its measurement. To gain a comprehensive understanding of cross-national variation in gender inequality and its measurement, we study four dimensions of labor market inequality that often generate different explanations...
CHAPTER 1. Gender Inequality in the Labor Market in Comparative Perspective
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In February 1993, the U.S. Congress passed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). The bill was soon signed into law by President Bill Clinton. The passage of the FMLA was a watershed event for American families, and for American women. For the first time in the nationâs history, the federal government required employers to provide twelve weeks of job-protected leave for new parents and other workers with family...
CHAPTER 2. The Institutional Underpinnings of Gender Inequality
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Across advanced industrialized economies, women are entering the labor force in record numbers; they have made inroads into all types of occupations and jobs and achieved great advances in garnering equal pay for equal work. Womenâs gains in the labor market have been tied to several factors: legal changes that protect the rights of women as workers; worldwide increases in womenâs educational attainment...
CHAPTER 3. Gender, Family, and Work in the Paid Labor Force
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Womenâs labor force participation increased dramatically in most industrialized countries in the latter half of the twentieth century. Figure 3.1 shows the cross-national trends in womenâs involvement in the paid labor force from 1978 to 2001, with the mean level increasing from 50 to 65 percent. The figure further reveals that during the 1980s and 1990s womenâs labor force involvement rates converged across...
CHAPTER 4. Gender, Family, and Part-Time Work
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Employment rates indicate a general level of access to economic opportunities, yet overall employment levels mask important differences in work hours (Buddelmeyer, Mourre, and Ward 2008). There is significant cross-national variability in levels of part-time work among women across countries, as well as scholarly agreement that women are more likely to work part-time than men (see, for example, Blossfeld and Hakim 1997; Fagan and OâReilly 1998). However, explanations for overall levels of part-time work...
CHAPTER 5. Gender, Family, and Occupational Sex Segregation
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Despite womenâs inroads into the labor market through the late twentieth century, there is ample evidence across countries that women and men are segregated within the labor market (Charles and Grusky 2004; Chang 2000). By a host of measures, and across countries, women and men are located in different occupations and are not equally represented...
CHAPTER 6. The Gender Wage Gap
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Public policy initiatives have helped to mitigate explicit gender discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs has advanced the employment fortunes of women in many countries. Given the massive growth in womenâs education and their movement into sectors of the economy typically reserved for men...
CHAPTER 7. Inequality in Employment, Hours Worked, Occupation, and Wages in the United States and Germany
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Up to now, this book has focused on gender inequality cross-nationally. This chapter shifts the focus to examine heterogeneity among women within countries, offering additional detail on how the dynamics of labor market inclusion and workersâ attachment to the paid labor force influence inequality for different groups of women within single-country settings. The aim of this chapter is to apply some of the insights generated...
CHAPTER 8. The Institutionalization of Gender Inequality in the Workplace
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Womenâs economic fortunes are highly variable across countries. Women in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland lead the world in levels of employment; women in Belgium and the Netherlands are the most likely to work alongside men in similar occupations; and working women in Italy have reached nearparity in wages with men...
METHODOLOGICAL APPENDIX. Description of Data and Measures
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We examine gender inequality in the labor market using data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). The LIS database is a collection of over one hundred household income surveys that provide demographic, income, and employment information for twenty-nine member countries (Luxembourg Income Study 2003)...
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Page Count: 270
Publication Year: 2010
Series Title: A West Coast Poverty Center Volume