Contesting Stereotypes and Creating Identities
Social Categories, Social Identities, and Educational Participation
Publication Year: 2007
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
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Educational achievement and opportunity often differ according to the social categories with which societies divide up their world, such as ethnicity, race, gender, or caste (Buchmann and Hannum 2001; Shavit and Blossfeld 1993). Within the United States, inequalities in attainment and opportunity continue to be an entrenched...
PART I. HOW SOCIAL CATEGORIES AND THEIR MEANINGS SHAPE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS
Chapter 1. Past as Present, Present as Past: Historicizing Black Education and Interrogating “Integration”
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One of the objectives of the works included in this volume is to interrogate the so-called achievement gap between mainstream white and Asian American students as compared to minority students in general and black students in particular. The current chapter focuses on the latter, although our analysis has implications for the...
Chapter 2. Essentialism and Cultural Narratives: A Social-Marginality Perspective
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Using an interdisciplinary perspective, I propose a life-span developmental framework to study social marginality. This framework will help further our understanding of the unique developmental changes in the lives of children and youths from marginalized communities. Social marginalization is experienced at multiple...
Chapter 3. Relations Among Social Identities, Intergroup Attitudes, and Schooling: Perspectives from Intergroup Theory and Research
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One of the best-known manipulations of social identity and intergroup attitudes within the classroom is the blue-eye/brown-eye “experiment” performed by Jane Elliot, a third-grade teacher in Riceville, Iowa, in 1967. Following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Elliot felt compelled to teach her students about...
PART II. HOW SOCIAL IDENTITIES FACILITATE OR CHALLENGE ACHIEVEMENT AND ENGAGEMENT IN SCHOOL
Chapter 4. Racial-Ethnic Identity: Content and Consequences for African American, Latino, and Latina Youths
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A large number of sociologists and psychologists have argued that racial-ethnic identity is a central part of self-concept for racial-ethnic minority adolescents. While these scholars have proposed that positive racial-ethnic identity should be related to general positive self-regard as well as specific positive outcomes, such as...
Chapter 5. Social Identity, Stereotype Threat, and Self-Theories
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Each of us possesses multiple social identities. For example, our sex, age, race, social class, religion, political beliefs, and professions are all potential social identities. In certain contexts in which we find ourselves, that social identity may be devalued. For example, Democrats at the Republican National Convention, gays and...
Chapter 6. Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and School Valuing Among Children from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families
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Ethnic-group differences in school achievement in the United States are distressing. At all school levels, African American and Latino students have lower grades, lower graduation rates, higher dropout rates, and lower standardized achievement test scores than do white and Asian students (see Burton and Jones 1982; Jencks...
Chapter 7. Women of Color in College: Effects of Identity and Context on Contingent Self-Worth
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The performance of women and minorities in secondary school has received considerable attention from social scientists, policymakers, and educators. Educational achievement predicts many life outcomes, including lifetime earnings and health. Consequently, social scientists, educators, and researchers want to understand factors...
PART III. HOW SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS MEDIATE THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL CATEGORIES AND IDENTITIES
Chapter 8. The Meaning of “Blackness”: How Black Students Differentially Align Race and Achievement Across Time and Space
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This chapter explores the ways African American students differentially align race and achievement in moving from a predominantly white high school to historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). In contrast to popular and academic discourse, which suggest that black students enter school with racialized conceptions...
Chapter 9. The Role of Peers, Families, and Ethnic-Identity Enactments in Educational Persistence and Achievement of Latino and Latina Youths
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In this chapter we examine the intersection of identity and educational achievement among Latina and Latino adolescent students who live in a large, urban community. In a time when achievement and accountability are the watchwords of educational practice and policy, we seek to understand the role that various academic and social, interpersonal...
Chapter 10. Family Identity and the Educational Persistence of Students with Latin American and Asian Backgrounds
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Several studies highlight the generally positive role played by minority children’s ethnic identification in dealing with the challenges that they face to their educational progress (in this volume, see Oyserman, Brickman, and Rhodes, chapter 4, and Lawrence, Bachman, and Ruble, chapter 6). Converging evidence suggests that contrary...
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Page Count: 288
Publication Year: 2007