Beyond Pontiac's Shadow
Michilimackinac and the Anglo-Indian War of 1763
Publication Year: 2013
On June 2, 1763, the Ojibwe captured Michigan’s Fort Michilimackinac from the British. Ojibwe warriors from villages on Mackinac Island and along the Cheboygan River had surprised the unsuspecting garrison while playing a game of baggatiway. On the heels of the capture, Odawa from nearby L’Arbre Croche arrived to rescue British prisoners, setting into motion a complicated series of negotiations among Ojibwe, Odawa, and Menominee and other Indians from Wisconsin. Because nearly all Native people in the Michilimackinac borderland had allied themselves with the British before the attack, they refused to join the Michilimackinac Ojibwe in their effort to oust the British from the upper country; the turmoil effectively halted the fur trade. Beyond Pontiac’s Shadow examines the circumstances leading up to the attack and the course of events in the aftermath that resulted in the regarrisoning of the fort and the restoration of the fur trade. At the heart of this discussion is an analysis of French-Canadian and Indian communities at the Straits of Mackinac and throughout the pays d’en haut. An accessible guide to this important period in Michigan, American, and Canadian history, Beyond Pontiac’s Shadow sheds invaluable light on a political and cultural crisis.
Published by: Michigan State University Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Foreword by Phil Porter
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In 1978, in commemoration of the bicentennial of the American Revolutionary War, Dr. David Ar-mour and Keith Widder wrote At the Crossroads, Michilimackinac During the American Revolution.tiac’s Rebellion,” exploded in violence at Michilimackinac on story of the first chapter of British occupation at the Straits versity Press. Our previous cooperative eﬀ orts include three ...
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This book had its origins in September 1965 when I first met David A. Armour, then a young assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Dave and his drafts of my writing. His greatest help as an editor was to ask drafts of only the first three chapters of this book before his them have filled the pages allotted for this book. The story of mained faithful to its responsibility to preserve and interpret ...
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On June 2, 1763, while playing a game of bag-gatiway, a party of Ojibwe warriors from Mackinac Island and Cheboygan attacked Fort Michilimackinac and captured it from Henry’s eyewitness account of the “massacre,” and Francis part of Pontiac’s “conspiracy” have shaped both the public so surprising after all. We learn from them that the attack was special, significant place. The fort’s location at the Straits of ...
Chapter One. Michilimackinac, 1760: At the Heart of North America
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In late September or early October 1760, Charles-Michel Mouet de Langlade brought news of the capitulation of Montreal to Michilimackinac. By the time Langlade arrived, Captain Louis Liénard the lives of people living in the pays d’en haut. The British en-veal much about the state of aﬀ airs in the pays d’en haut in Th e Vaudreuil map. Soon after Governor General François-Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil, surrendered Montreal to General Jeﬀ ery Amherst, ...
Chapter Two. Michilimackinac, 1761: A French-Canadian, Odawa, and Ojibwe Community
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A complex web of relationships wove together the fabric of the fur-trade society at Michilimackinac. French-Canadians living at Michilimackinac Engraving. “Habit of a Woman of the interior parts of North America.” lotted a bushel of corn, or lye hominy, as it was often called, officers were the “human centers” of the alliance that bound . . . There were two sorts of chiefs, namely, the war chiefs, ...
Chapter Three. Detroit, 1760–1761: The British Enter the Pays d’en Haut
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The story of Michilimackinac after the British conquest of Canada in 1760 is the saga of In-dians, British, French-Canadians, and métisstruggling to build an enduring peace and “Ancient Chain of Friendship,” or the “Covenant Chain” to them that if their warriors did not attack the English, British troops would not “invade” their lands or go to Detroit. Even their promise.9 In response they threatened “to send to all the ...
Chapter Four. Michilimackinac, 1761: British Troops Take Possession of the Fort and the Posts at La Baye and St. Joseph
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Captain Henry Balfour took possession of the French forts at Michilimackinac, La Baye, and St. Joseph in autumn 1761, thereby incorporating the Michilimackinac border-four’s eﬀ orts to implement General Jeﬀ ery Amherst’s policy nates not to purchase “the good behavior of Indians”; rather intertribal conflicts, the ravages of disease, and the eﬀ ects of After all, they were still technically at war. The formal peace ...
Chapter Five. Prelude to War, 1762–1763: Amherst’s Policies, Native Unrest, and the Diplomacy of Thomas Hutchins and James Gorrell
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With the dawn of 1762, Native people and Canadians in the Michilimackinac borderland faced the unenviable task of adapting to the presence of asser-d’en haut. It had been only a short time since they had gazed how one British officer built trust in the wake of distrust left corporate it into the British Atlantic World “on the cheap.” advised that the British take “quiet possession of our distant ...
Chapter Six. Michilimackinac on the Brink, Spring 1763
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Upon their arrival in September 1761, British soldiers and traders set about dis-rupting the lives of the residents of Fort Michilimackinac by reshaping the ap-and they carried orders to establish a small post at Sault Ste. Th ese bottles originally held alcoholic beverages imported from Europe. Th e dark green ones are British. Th e blue-green one is French or Dutch. Th ey were excavated in cellars on the west side of the fort ...
Chapter Seven. Michilimackinac, Summer 1763: Attack, Exile, Diplomacy, Loss, Repatriation
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On the sultry morning of Thursday, June 2, 1763, all hell broke loose at Fort Michili-mackinac when warriors from local Ojibwe villages brought death and destruction to fore quiet returned, one officer, fifteen rank and file, and one L’Arbre Croche’s ties to Michilimackinac and restored stabil-Langlade’s role during the attack and its aftermath is crucial interpreters. Traders’ accounts of the violence that they suf-...
Chapter Eight. Crown Officials Respond to Calamity, Late 1763 and Early 1764
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The turmoil stirred up by the Ojibwe at Mich-ilimackinac and other acts of violence in the West motivated General Jeﬀ ery Amherst, Sir William Johnson, General Thomas Gage, peace and restoring the fur trade. As the top British officials Seven Years’ War. On June 8, the Earl of Shelburne, the first together land policy, the fur trade, regulations for the trade, government’s eﬀ ort to gain control of the pays d’en haut. ...
Chapter Nine. Prelude to British Reoccupation of Fort Michilimackinac, 1764
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Reoccupying Fort Michilimackinac formed a key element in British strat-egy for restoring peace and the fur trade in the upper country. Before with Great Britain. With the fall of all the posts in the upper word, “unsettled” best described the pays d’en haut in 1764; tribes and their allies in Illinois and the Ohio country, hoping that the Odawa at Michilimackinac were not “better aﬀ ected ...
Chapter Ten. The British Return to Michilimackinac, 1764–1765
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Upon arrival at Fort Michilimackinac on September 22, 1764, Captain Wil-liam Howard and two companies of the Seventeenth Regiment of Foot assumed troit, throughout the pays d’en haut, and the Illinois country. It did not take long for Howard to discover that his superiors’ when he and his troops set out in “8 large Boats and 2 French Canadians. Gage and Bradstreet saw a fearful state of aﬀ airs ...
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In late 1764, Captain William Howard picked up the work begun by Lieutenant James Gorrell at La Baye in 1762–63. The alliances negotiated by Gorrell with the Wisconsin Indians played a vital functioned eﬀ ectively, the multiethnic society that revolved 1763, British officials found it difficult to trust the French in British that it was in their best interest to fit into the existing ...
Appendix One. Michilimackinac Families
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Appendix Two. Dietrich Brehm’s Reports for 1760 and 1761
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Appendix Three. Deeds, December 21, 1760
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Page Count: 360
Publication Year: 2013
Edition: 1st Hardcover
Series Editor Byline: John Smith, Will Wordsworth