The Dialectics of Citizenship
Exploring Privilege, Exclusion and Racialization
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: Michigan State University Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Quote
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This book grows out of, and indeed connects to, previous efforts (Reiter 2009; Nef and Reiter 2009). Its realization would have been impossible without the support I have received from the Desigualdades Network of the Free University of Berlin. I am very grateful for the support they have given me and want to express my sincere thanks, especially to...
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The central theme of this book is autonomy and self-rule. It focuses on those sites, historical and geographical, where people have taken up the banner of self-rule and established democratic systems. As soon as they have done so—and this is the thread weaving together the different stories here told—they had to face the adversary of those who had something...
Chapter 1. The Epistemology and Methodology of Exploratory Social Science Research: Crossing Popper with Marcuse
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This chapter seeks to propose a rationale for exploratory research in the social sciences. Inspired by the recent debates around qualitative methods (Gerring 2001; George and Bennett 2005; Brady and Collier 2004; Mahoney and Rueschemeyer 2003; Ragin 2008, to name just a few), I seek to demonstrate that exploratory research also has a rightful place...
Chapter 2. Conceptualizing Citizenship: Disjunctive, Dual, Divided, Entangled, or What?
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In his seminal work on Citizenship and Social Class, T. H. Marshall ( 1992) argued that in Europe, civil rights preceded political rights, and once both these rights were achieved, social rights would follow. Marshall predicted that the twentieth century would see an expansion of social rights, which he defined as “the whole range from the right to...
Chapter 3. Classical Citizenship: The Political and the Social
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This chapter focuses on classical citizenship as practiced and experienced in Athens and the Roman Republic. To do so, for a political scientist, is to venture onto thin ice, as I have to rely almost entirely on secondary sources and a few translated primary sources. The chapter is, however, a necessary part of this book, as it allows me to add a historical...
Chapter 4. Medieval European Citizenship: Christian Rights and Jewish Duties
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It would certainly be wrong to say that democracy succumbed after the collapse of the Roman Republic. The problem is rather one of historical sources—and the lack thereof. Democratic experiments in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, or the Pacific region are simply not as well documented to base an analysis of the dialectics of citizenship...
Chapter 5. France: Liberalism Unveiled
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France is a crucial case in this study. France presents itself— and is widely imaged—as being the next step from, or the natural continuation of, the ancient Greek invention of democracy. France thus is important historically. It is, however, also important conceptually, as France to this day stands out as a nation that has held onto the liberal republican...
Chapter 6. The Postcolonial Within: Portugal, White and European
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In this chapter, I analyze Portugal’s negotiations around the issues of citizenship, belonging, and rights. Portugal, again, is a very telling and crucial case. It represents several empirical/historical phenomena. For one thing, as a European Union member, Portugal is a typical European case. Given Portugal’s fairly recent admission to the EU and its position...
Chapter 7. Brazil: Experts in Exclusion
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This chapter focuses on yet another illustrative case: Brazil. As I have done before, I present each case to highlight one particular aspect of the dialectics of citizenship. In this chapter, the main focus is “how exclusion works.” I have chosen Brazil as an example to explain how exclusion works not because Brazil is peculiar in this respect. To the contrary...
Chapter 8. Colombia: When Law and Reality Clash
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In 1991, the Colombian state declared itself a multiethnic and pluricultural nation. The new constitution also included Article 55, an affirmative action law for ethnic minorities. Law 70 of 1993, known as the Law of the Black Communities, soon followed, giving Afro-Colombian communities in the Pacific coastal areas the right to collectively own and...
Chapter 9. Conclusion: Learning from Exploratory Research
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The first insight is about dialectics. So far, thinking about inherent contradictions and unresolved tensions of citizenship has proven fruitful. Not just because such a way of thinking is inherently dynamic and allows us to focus on processes rather than stasis. Given that the social world is in constant flux, such a way of thinking about it promises to produce fruitful...
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Publication Year: 2013