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Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management

A Binational Perspective

William W. Taylor

Publication Year: 2012

To maintain thriving, sustainable fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, an understanding of the numerous and complex ecological, societal, economic, management, and policy issues surrounding them is critical. This incisive study provides a collaborative, interjurisdictional, and multi-use perspective that is shaped by the United states and Canada together as part of their shared governance of these waters. This book offers an informed look at the Great Lakes fisheries and their ecosystems, as the contributors examine both the threats they have faced and the valuable opportunities they provide for basin citizens and industries. Divided into four sections—the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes Fisheries, Fisheries case studies, and outlook for the Future—this is a valuable and up-to-date tool for students, researchers, policymakers, and managers alike.

Published by: Michigan State University Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Foreword

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pp. ix-xii

One of the most well recognized landmarks in the world, the Laurentian Great Lakes, is known for its fish and fisheries as much as for its stunning beauty and vast quantities of cold, clear fresh water. Indeed, much of the history of the Great Lakes reflects a close connection between the people, the fish, and the management actions that shaped the fisheries. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

We are greatly indebted to many people who helped this publication come to fruition. First and foremost, we would like to thank the authors of the chapters. Without their expertise, directive, and especially patience, this endeavor would not have been possible. ...

Part 1. The Great Lakes Region

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The Great Lakes: An Overview of Their Formation, Geology, Physics, and Chemistry

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pp. 3-30

The Laurentian Great Lakes are the crown jewels of the freshwater systems of North America. These five large lakes, their associated lakes, and their connecting channels (fig. 1) hold about 23,000 km3 of water— enough to cover the contiguous United States to a depth of about 3 meters (Great Lakes Environmental Atlas 1995). ...

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Demographic and Economic Patterns in the Great Lakes Region

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pp. 31-50

The human landscape of the Great Lakes region is characterized by three important spatial and temporal patterns. First, there is considerable spatial diversity across the region in terms of the demographic characteristics of the people and the economic activities these people pursue. ...

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Issues Affecting Fish Habitat in the Great Lakes Basin

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pp. 51-80

One of the primary goals of ecology is to understand the abundance and distribution of organisms. At its core, the study of fish habitat is an attempt to accomplish this goal. Fish and other aquatic organisms need habitat to survive, and the productive capacity of the environment depends on how well their needs are met. ...

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Landscape Change and Its Influences on Aquatic Habitats and Fisheries in the Great Lakes Basin

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pp. 81-104

The Laurentian Great Lakes are an economically and ecologically valuable resource. The lakes supply water for municipalities and industry, provide fishing and boating opportunities for residents and tourists, and serve as a key shipping route linking the agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers of the basin to the world. ...

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Fishes and Decapod Crustaceans of the Great Lakes Basin

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pp. 105-136

The primary goal of the first edition of this chapter (Coon 1994) was to provide an overview of the Laurentian Great Lakes fish community and its origins. For this edition, we have taken a slightly different approach. Although we have updated the checklist of fishes in each of the Great Lakes and their watersheds, ...

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Recent Changes in Successional State of the Deep-Water Fish Communities of Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and Management Implications

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pp. 137-166

Of the five Great Lakes, Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario are most alike in their morphometry (fig. 1) and fish communities. All three lakes are characterized by extensive, deep off shore waters and massive hypolimnia that, before European colonization, were dominated by various forms of ciscoes ...

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Fish Species at Risk and Non-Native Fishes in the Great Lakes Basin: Past, Present, and Future

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pp. 167-202

The fish fauna of the Great Lakes has changed significantly since, and as a result of, the arrival of Europeans. Europeans brought with them and stocked non-native fishes they preferred to eat and angle (e.g., Common Carp, Brown Trout; common names according to Nelson et al. 2004; see Roth et al. 2012 for scientific names; ...

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Contaminants in Great Lakes Fish: Historic, Current, and Emerging Concerns

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pp. 203-258

The Great Lakes basin has seen some dramatic changes over the past century. The area has experienced marked changes in land use, accelerated population and industrial growth, and a vast array of contaminants and anthropogenic stressors that have changed in composition and relative importance over time. ...

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Current Status of Fish Health and Disease Issues in the Laurentian Great Lakes: 2005–2010

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pp. 259-302

The Laurentian Great Lakes compose the largest freshwater ecosystem on earth, which supports a number of economically and ecologically valuable sport and commercial fisheries. A combination of habitat destruction, invasions by exotic species, and the overexploitation of the fishery decimated stocks of native fish species in the Great Lakes basin (GLB). ...

Part 2. Great Lakes Fisheries

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Multi-Jurisdictional Management of the Shared Great Lakes Fishery: Transcending Conflict and Diffuse Political Authority

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pp. 305-338

During the late 1700s and early 1800s, the period of European colonization, the Great Lakes region was a key battleground for control of North America. World powers fought each other, colonists, and native peoples for the right to control the region and, out of these conflicts, emerged political boundaries ...

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Great Lakes Commercial Fisheries: Historical Overview and Prognoses for the Future

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pp. 339-398

Commercial fishing played an important role in the settlement of the Great Lakes region of North America and continues to be an important industry in the area. Abundant fishery resources were a key factor in the establishment of early settlements in many areas around the Great Lakes. ...

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Great Lakes Recreational Fisheries and Their Role in Fisheries Management and Policy

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pp. 399-440

Recreational, commercial, and tribal fishing are the three sources of fishing pressure on the Great Lakes. Commercial fishers harvest and sell fish for income; tribal fishers harvest and sell fish for income and/or use them as subsistence. Recreational fishers1 catch fish for pleasure and/or food, both of which include social and economic benefits (Dann and Schroeder 2003). ...

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Aquaculture in the Great Lakes

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pp. 441-454

As reported by the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration (GLRC) Aquaculture Drafting Team (GLRC 2005), “aquaculture can be defined as the husbandry of aquatic organisms and implies the purposeful intent to nurture or promote the growth and survival of the targeted organism.” ...

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Great Lakes Fisheries Law Enforcement

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pp. 455-472

Management of the Great Lakes fisheries involves a complex governance structure spanning nations, states, tribal authorities, and local authorities. These authorities are responsible for addressing the challenges facing the Great Lakes through promulgation of law and policy and implementing practices that balance science-based evidence, ...

Part 3. Fisheries Case Studies

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Managing Inherent Complexity for Sustainable Walleye Fisheries in Lake Erie

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pp. 475-494

In Lake Erie, Walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus) is king. The naturally occurring species is the foundation of commercial fishing operations on the Canadian side of the lake and is a much-prized sportfish on the U.S. side (Lloyd and Mullen 1991; Lichtkoppler 1997; Lichtkoppler et al. 2008). ...

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Rehabilitation of Lake Sturgeon in the Great Lakes: Making Progress

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pp. 495-532

Th e Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) is indigenous to North America and all of the Great Lakes (Scott and Crossman 1998). Few freshwater fish in North America have a wider geographic range than the Lake Sturgeon. It is found in three drainage basins: the Mississippi River, the Great Lakes, and Hudson Bay (Priegel and Wirth 1971). ...

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Re-Establishing Lake Trout in the Laurentian Great Lakes: Past, Present, and Future

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pp. 533-588

Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were native to the Laurentian Great Lakes (hereafter, Great Lakes) and were widely distributed throughout lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and the eastern basin of Lake Erie (fig. 1). Prior to European colonization, Lake Trout were an important resource for aboriginal peoples living around the Great Lakes (Bogue 2000). ...

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Regulation of Sport Fishery Harvest of Lake Trout: Use of Size Limits in New York’s Waters of Lake Ontario

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pp. 589-608

Healthy, viable, and sustainable fish stocks that have stable or increasing populations and stable fisheries are easy to manage. However, difficulties with stakeholders arise, when overfishing occurs and harvests must be reduced to protect a stock. Harvest control through fishing regulations is an important function of fishery management ...

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Pacific Salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

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pp. 609-650

Overall, the history of Great Lakes salmonine (genus Oncorhynchus) populations can be described by three distinct periods: indigenous (pre-1850), transitional (1850–1960), and recent (1960–present; Parsons 1973). During the indigenous period, the apex of Great Lakes food webs was occupied by the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), ...

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Sea Lamprey Control: Past, Present, and Future

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pp. 651-704

The establishment of non-native species, whether intentional or accidental, combined with anthropogenic exploitation of fishes and their habitats have significantly and irreversibly altered the ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes (Smith 1968; Loftus and Regier 1972; Eshenroder and Burnham-Curtis 1999; Leach et al. 1999). ...

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Alewife in the Great Lakes: Old Invader—New Millennium

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pp. 705-732

Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) are unique among the many exotic species that have invaded and successfully colonized the Laurentian Great Lakes. Their burgeoning numbers could not only be reduced by management actions, but also the method used to reduce the populations, annual releases of hatchery-reared trout and salmon (salmonines), ...

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Double-Crested Cormorants in the Laurentian Great Lakes: Issues and Ecosystems

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pp. 733-764

The debate concerning the effects of cormorant (Phalacrocorax spp.) consumption on fish abundance shows a remarkable degree of fidelity to a common theme independent of location, language, or cultural heritage. The scope of this debate stems largely from population increase and expansion of the Great Cormorant ...

Part 4. Outlook for the Future

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Aquatic Invasive Species Risks to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins: Asian Carp as a Case for Serious Consideration of Hydrologic Separation

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pp. 767-786

The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), designed in the nineteenth century to divert and dilute sewage and support navigation, cuts through a natural divide that once separated the Great Lakes ecosystem from the Mississippi River basin (MRB). Later modifications to the CSSC to incorporate the Calumet River system ...

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Epilogue: Fisheries Sustainability and Water Policy: The Need to Think Beyond the Basin Boundaries

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pp. 787-792

Years ago, our view of the health of the Great Lakes ecosystem and associated fisheries was limited only to the lakes themselves and the immediate surrounding area. Th is rather parochial focus was a reflection of our attention to, and knowledge about, the most pressing local issues of the time, such as overharvest and pollution from within-basin sources. ...

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Contributors

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pp. 793-804

Ted Batterson is a professor emeritus in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Michigan State University. Prior to his retirement on January 1, 2012, he had taught for over two decades an undergraduate course he had developed on the Great Lakes. ...

Index

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pp. 805-865


E-ISBN-13: 9781609173357
Print-ISBN-13: 9781611860245

Publication Year: 2012