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Public documents from Sinnar

Jay Spaulding

Publication Year: 1989

This selection of Arabic and English translations illuminations the changes of eighteenth-century government in the northern Nile Valley of Sudan, and provides reliable chronological points of reference for the history of the region.  
      The documents offered in this volume, including charter grants of land and privilege, administrative letters, judicial rulings, and other official government records, date form 1702 to 1820. This period marks the apogee of the wealth, power, and geographical extent of the realm of the Funji kings of Sinnar who reigned over much of the Sudan from about 1500 until the Turkish colonial conquest of 1821.  
      These records document with concrete precision and eloquence the dissolution of the agrarian social order of an old African kingdom under the corroding influence of intrusive Mediterranean commercial practices and culture. They reveal the Sudan's legacy of a traditionally weak government vulnerable to manipulation or conquest by foreign powers and a divided and impoverished society dominated by a minority of urban interests.  
 

Published by: Michigan State University Press

Contents

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pp. ix-xi

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Acknowledgement

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pp. xii-xiii

About fifteen years ago the authors of this volume undertook to prepare a collection of public documents from Sinniir, the texts available at that time having been gathered and set by M. I. Abu Salim and an English translation and notes prepared by Jay Spaulding. Due to a series of unfortunate circumstances...

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A Note on Conventions

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pp. xiv-xvi

Eighteenth-century Sudanese Arabic is an idiom of beauty, power, and precision. Its conventions differ in some minor respects from those of Classical Arabic, but rarely to a degree that raises questions about meaning; only in the latter case does the present study call attention to its idiosyncracies. The Arabic texts given below follow the sources from which they are derived, and the ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-31

The Historical Setting.--The northern Nile Valley Sudan is home to one of the world's oldest cultural traditions, characterized for more than three millennia by the presence of state forms of government and by literacy. The leaders of successive regimes chose to write in diverse languages; sometimes these were indigenous (Meroitic, Nubian), but at other times preference was given to a ...

The Central Government

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pp. 33-241

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Document 1: Laissez-passer of Badi b. Unsa

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pp. 33-36

Document 1 is a laissez-passer issued by Sultan Badi III to the Franciscan missionaries Theodoro Krump and Antonio della Terza on their departure from Sinniir on 1 May 1702. The translation given here is derived from Krump's travel...

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Document 2: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 37-41

Document 2 is a confinning charter issued by Sultan Badi IV during Rajab 1141 (31 January to 1 March 1729) to Faqih Muhammad walad al-Shaykh [Abu ... ] concerning the estate of al-Daqaqat and to Faqih Hammad concerning a purchased...

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Document 3: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 42-43

Document 3 is a confinning charter issued by Sultan Badi IV to Faqih Bishara b. al-Faqih 'Ali b. Bursi in 1145/1732-1733. The text has been derived from a partial copy preserved in Ahmad b. Isma'il al-Azhari's manuscript entitled...

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Document 4: Charter of `Abd al-`Aziz b. Muhammad al-Mahdi

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pp. 44-47

Document 4 is a charter containing a ruling of the qadt of Sinnar 'Abd al-'Aziz, issued in Sha'ban 1145 (17 January to 14 February 1733). The text is based upon a copy prepared by EI Fatih EI Houssein EI Hasan.1 The ruling illustrates a common theme of the Heroic Age in Sinniir, the gradual extinction...

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Document 5: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 48-51

Document 5 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Badi IV to Faqih Muhammad b. al-Faqih Ahmad b. al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Rahman b. al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Rahim "The Seller of Rain" in Sha'ban 1145 (17 January to 14 February 1733). The text is derived from a photocopy published by Sadik...

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Document 6: Charter of Rahma b. Yunus

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pp. 52-55

Document 6 is an originating charter issued by the amin aI-sultan RaQma b. Yiinus for Shaykh Ya'qiib b. al-Shaykh Muhammad Zayn on 23 Dhu'I-Hijja 1146/27 May 1734; Sultan Badi IV subsequently confirmed this grant (Doc. 7). The text is based upon a copy preserved...

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Document 7: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 56-59

Document 7 is a confirrming charter issued by Sultan Bam N to Shaykb Ya' qiib b. Muhammad Zayn on 1 Mul).arram 1147/3 June 1734; it confirrms the grant of the amin Rahma (Doc. 6). The text is based upon a copy preserved in...

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Document 8: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 60-65

Document 8 is an originating charter issued by Sultan Badi IV to Faqih al-Sayyid [b.] 'Abd al-Hadi b. al-Shaykh Muhammad walad Dolib. The text was taken from the original by the editors.1 The top of the document, probably bearing the invocatio, is truncated; so is the bottom line or lines containing the...

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Document 9: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 66-70

Document 9 is an originating charter issued by Sultan Badi IV to Faqih Muhammad al-Sayyid b. al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Hadi b. Muhammad Dolib and to Faqih Dolib b. Muhammad in 1156/1743-1744. The text was taken by the...

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Document 10: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 71-75

Document 10 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Badi IV to Faqih 'Abd al-Hadi walad Muhammad walad 'Abd al-Hadi walad Dolib in Rajab 1157/10 August - 8 September 1744, renewing his rights to the homestead (zarfba) of his forefather Muhammad walad Dolib. The text has been taken by...

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Document 11: Qur'an colophon from the court of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 76-79

Document 11 is a colophon concluding a Qur'an manuscript and dated 9 Sha'ban 1159/27 August 1746; it was prepared in Sinniir for donation by Sultan Badi IV to Faqih Muhammad al-Hajj Sa'd, leader of the fuqarii' community of the 'Ababsa of Nadi in the Rubatab country. The text has been taken by the...

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Document 12: Charter of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 80-88

Document 12 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Badi IV to Faqih 'Abd al-RaQman b. al-Faqih Khojali in Rajab 1166/4-31 May 1753, bestowing upon him a grant that included the land in which Shaykh Khojali was buried. The text has been taken by the editors from the original. 1 A fragment at the...

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Document 13: Kettledrum inscription of Badi b. Nol

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pp. 89-

Document 13 is an inscription on a copper kettledrum preserved in the family of the Funj sultans. According to A.E. Robinson, "Mek [Sultan] Nasr, the lineal descendent of Mek Badi [VI] the Fung Sultan who surrendered [to the Turks in 1821] possesses a nehas [na~as] or copper drum ....

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Document 14: Charter of Nasir b. Badi

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pp. 90-101

Document 14 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Nasir b. Badi to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 15 Dhu'l-Qa'da 1175/7 June 1762. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is intact and easily legible.1 The witness roster illustrates the changes in court personnel that immediately...

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Document 15: Charter of Nasir b. Badi

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pp. 102-108

Document 15 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Nasir b. Badi to Faqih Muhammad walad Daf Allah in the month of ~afar 1177/11 August - 8 September 1763. The text has been taken by the editors from the original. 1 The latter is in fragments; the top lines containing most of the invocatio are missing...

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Document 16: Charter of Nasir b. Badi

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pp. 109-115

Document 16 is a nullifying charter issued by Sultan Nasir for the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 7 Jumada 11179/22 October 1765 against al-Jalli walad Walad Umm Maryum. The text has been taken by the editors from a copy written down in 1910 during the course of the land registration program of the..

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Document 17: Letter of Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 116-118

Document 17 is a letter from the Hamaj Regent Muhammad Abu Likaylik to Arbab Badi b. al-Shaykh 'Abd Allah. The text was taken by the editors from the original, which is damaged around all the margins; fragments bearing the invocatio and the seal have been detached from...

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Document 18: Charter of Isma`il b. Badi

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pp. 119-128

Document 18 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Isma il b. Badi to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 11 Rabi' I 1184/5 July 1770. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is intact and easily legible.1 The charter confirms the rights of..

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Document 19: Laissez-passer of Isma'il b. Badi

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pp. 129-130

Document 19 is a laissez-passer issued by Sultan Ismii'n b. Badi to the traveler James Bruce in 1772. An English translation was published by Bruce's biographer Alexander Murray, and this is given here.1 The sultan explained that Bruce, known as "El Hakim Yagoube," came from Ethiopia...

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Document 20: Laissez-passer of `Adlan b. Subahi

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pp. 131-133

Document 20 is a laissez-passer written for James Bruce in 1772 by the Shaykh of al-Bahr, 'Adlan walad Subahi. The English translation provided by Bruce's biographer Alexander Murray is given here.1 The document is addressed to the senior leader of the Jamu'iya, Musnad (mentioned in the...

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Document 21: Laissez-passer of' Adlan b. Subahi

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pp. 134-135

Document 21 is a laissez-passer issued for the traveler James Bruce by the Hamaj notable' Adlan walad Subahi, Shaykh of al-Bal}r, in 1772. An English translation was given by Bruce's biographer Alexander Murray, and this is...

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Document 22: Charter of Isma`il b. Badi

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pp. 136-140

Document 22 is a charter issued to several notables of the Hamran, among them Shaykh 'Ali walad Mahmud walad Kuwayn, on 27 ~afar 1188/9 May 1774. The text has been taken from the version published by al-Tayyib Muhammad al-Tayyib, apparently based upon an imperfect copy of an original..

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Document 23: Charter of Badi b. Rajab

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pp. 141-145

Document 23 is a confirming charter issued by the Hamaj Regent Badi walad Rajab to Shaykh Barakat walad Maduwi on 24 Sha'ban 1192/17 September 1778. The text has been taken by the editors from the original.1 The document is truncated at the top, and the opening protocols are missing. The...

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Document 24: Charter of ` Adlan b. Isma`il

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pp. 146-156

Document 24 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan 'Adlan b. Ismii'il to Faqih Isma'il b. Muhammad b. Arbiib al-'Aqayid and his sister Sittina on 1 Dhu'l-Hijja 1194/28 November 1780. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, supplemented by material from an early copy preserved as a..

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Document 25: Charter of ` Adlan b. Isma`il

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pp. 157-167

Document 25 is a confIrming charter issued by Sultan 'AdIan b. Isma'il to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 17 Dhu'l-Hijja 1195/4 December 1781. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is easily legible and intact except for minor fraying with loss of a few letters along the right...

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Document 26: Charter of Ibrahim b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 168-169

Document 26 is a charter issued by Ibrahim b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik concerning a dispute over land between Hajj Hamid walad 'Awu~a and 'Ubayd walad Idris. The text has been taken by the editors from a photocopy of the original. 1 The document is truncated at the bottom; only the opening protocols..

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Document 27: Charter of Nasir b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik (?)

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pp. 170-174

Document 27 is a charter issued on 6 Jumlida II 1203/4 March 1789 to Faqih Muhammad walad Da'ud of Kitra, confirming his right to lands his family had held under sultanic grant since the reign ofBadi II. The text has been taken by the editors from Neil McHugh's study of a...

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Document 28: Charter of Badi b. Dakin

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pp. 175-179

Document 28 is an originating charter issued by Sultan Bam v to 'Awad aI-Karim "Abu Sinn," Shaykh of the Shukriya, on 12 Rabi' I 1206/9 November 1791. The text has been taken by the editors from a photocopy of the original, which is intact..

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Document 29: Letter of Nasir b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 180-183

Document 29 is a letter from the Regent Nasir b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik to his governor of the northern province, Badi b. Mismar. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is damaged around all the margins with some loss...

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Document 30: Charter of `Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 184-189

Document 30 is a confIrming charter issued by 'Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik to Faqih Muhammad walad Da'ud of Kitra on 26 Muharram 1210/12 August 1795. The text has been taken by the editors from Neil McHugh's study of a nineteenth-century...

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Document 31: Letter of Nasir b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 190-191

Document 31 is a letter from the Regent Nii~ir b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik to Faqih al-Amin al-Majdhub of al-Diimir. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is truncated at the top; the seal and part of the opening protocols...

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Document 32: Charter of Ranfa b. Badi

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pp. 192-196

Document 32 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Ranfa b. Badi to the Awlad Dolib during 1213/1798-1799. The document has been taken by the editors from the original, which is damaged around the margins with some loss of text. 1 The charter reflects the compromise arranged during 1798-1799 by the ...

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Document 33: Charter of `Umar b. Ibrahim

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pp. 197-202

Document 33 is a charter issued by the qadi, Sharif 'Umar b. Ibrahim on 16 Muharram 1214/20 June 1799. The text has been taken by the editors from a miniscule copy of the original preserved in the photographic collection of the Sudanese Ministry of Culture and Information; when enlarged the photograph..

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Document 34: Letter of Idris b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 203-204

Document 34 is a letter from the Regent Idris b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik to the leaders of the Majadhib community of al-Damir. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is truncated at the top; the seal and most of the opening protocols ...

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Document 35: Charter of Muhammad b. `Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 205-211

Document 35 is an originating charter issued by Muhammad b. 'Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik; the text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is intact and easily legible.1 The document records a grant to Faqih Ahmad b. 'Isa of the estate of Umm...

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Document 36: Charter of Muhammad b. ` Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 212-

Document 36 purports to be a grant by a Hamaj authority to Ahmad al-Basir, the last independent Shaykh of the Halawiyin, consisting of land where he lived. A very imperfect English version was recorded by G.B. Tame.1 The charter is not dated. The issuing authority was not the sultan, nor..

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Document 37: Seal of Wawrit b. Harun

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pp. 213-

Document 37 is the text of a seal of the court official Wawrit b. Harun, recorded by G.B. Brocchi and dated 1218/1803-1804.1 In his diary entry for 25 February 1826, Brocchi wrote: "I have seen today an iron seal of Wawrit Harun, of the race of the Funj, secretary to the King of Sinnar. In the Plates is ...

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Document 38: Charter of Muhammad b. `Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 214-219

Document 38 is an originating charter issued by Muhammad b. 'Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik to Faqih Muhammad 'Ali walad al-'Abbas on 10 Muharram 1228/13 January 1813. The text is based upon a copy preserved in the papers of A.J. Arkell.1 The charter conveys rights to land near the modern..

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Document 39: Charter of Husayn b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 220-225

Document 39 is a confirming charter issued by the Regent Husayn b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik to Faqih Muhammad 'Ali al-' Abbasi on 12 Muharram 1228/15 January 1813. The text is based upon a copy preserved in the papers..

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Document 40: Charter of Badi b.Tabl

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pp. 226-231

Document 40 is a confirming charter issued by Sultan Badi VI to Madani walad Farah. on 13 Dhu'l-Qa'da 1230/17 October 1815. The text has been taken by the editors from a miniscule copy of the original preserved in the photographic collection of the Sudanese Ministry of Culture and Information;..

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Document 41: Charter of Badi b. Tabl

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pp. 232-233

Document 41 is confiring charter issued by Sultan Bam VI to Muhammad al-' Araki walad 'Abd al-' Ali, his Shaykh of Bayla (Doc. 40). The land conveyed probably lay east of the Blue Nile and north of the capital along the lower course of the Rahad. The original document was sent by Shaykh...

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Document 42: Charter of Husayn b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 234-238

Document 42 is an originating charter issued by the Regent Husayn b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik to Faqih Ahmad b. 'Isa on 27 Rabi' II 1235/12 February 1820, bestowing upon him the estate of Umm Hawaya. For the controversial relationship between Doc. 42 and another grant of the same ...

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Document 43: Letter of Muhammad b. `Adlan b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik

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pp. 239-241

Document 43 is a letter issued by Muhammad b. 'AdHin b. Muhammad Abu Likaylik late in 1820 or early in 1821 during the course of the Turkish invasion of Sinniir. The text has been taken by the editors from a photocopy published by al-Shatir Busayli ...

The Northern Provincial Government

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pp. 242-349

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Document 44: Charter of Hammad b. `Ali

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pp. 242-246

Document 44 is an originating charter issued by the northern provincial governor Hammad b. 'Ali, nicknamed "al-Simayh... 1 to Faqih Khojali. The text has been taken by the editors from the original.2 The grant conveyed rights to two riverbank properties, probably near the Nile confluence, and it also released ...

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Document 45: Letter of Hammad b. ` Ajib

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pp. 247-250

Document 45 is a letter from Hammad b. 'Ajib to Faqih Khojali. The text has been taken by the editors from the original.1 Hammad, nicknamed zilf al- 'ijl or "Calfs Foot," was remembered in later years as a successful general in the service of his father, 'Ajib b. Muhammad al-'Ajayl; however, the present ...

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Document 46: Charter of Dayf Allah b. Muhammad

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pp. 251-261

Document 46 is a charter issued by Faqih Dayf Allah, the qadi of Shaykh 'Ajib b. 'Abd Allah of Qarri, on 4 Rabi' II 1181/30 August 1767. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is frayed at the bottom and along a fold through the middle of the document. 1 The charter contains the..

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Document 47: Charter of `Ajib b. ` Abd Allah

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pp. 262-266

Document 47 is a confIrming charter issued by the Shaykh of Qani 'Ajib b. 'Abd Allah to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 19 Sha'ban 1181/10 January 1768. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is intact and easily legible.1 The charter confirms the ruling of the judge ...

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Document 48: Charter of Hammad b. ` Arabi

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pp. 267-270

Document 48 is an originating charter issued by Hammad b. 'Arabi, Shaykb of the Daniyab, to Faqih al-Sayyid b. 'Abd al-Hadi b. Muhammad walad Dolib. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is frayed across the bottom with some loss of text. An unusual feature are the characters used in ...

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Document 49: Charter of `Ajib b. `Abd Allah

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pp. 271-273

Document 49 is a confirming charter issued by the Shaykh of Qarri 'Ajib b. 'Abd Allah to Faqih al-Sayyid b. 'Abd al-Hadi b. Muhammad Dolib, ratifying the grant of his subordinate Hammad b. 'Arabi (Doc. 48). The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is frayed across the bottom with ...

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Document 50: Charter of Muhammad al-Amin b. Mismar

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pp. 274-280

Document 50 is an originating charter issued by the Shaykh of Qarri Muhammad al-Amin b. Mismar to Faqih Muhammad b. al-Sayyid walad Dolib. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is frayed across the bottom with some loss ...

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Document 51: Charter of Badi b. Mismar

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pp. 281-286

Document 51 is a confirming charter issued by the Shaykh of Qarri Badi b. Mismar for the Awlad Dolib on 2 Jumada II 1209/25 December 1794. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is damaged at the lower right comer with ...

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Document 52: Charter of Abu Bakr b. Sulayman

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pp. 287-289

Document 52 is a confirming charter issued by Arbab Abu Bakr b. Sulayman, Malik of the Jamu'iya, to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is damaged across the bottom with some loss of characters. 1 The charter is not dated, but may be assigned to...

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Document 53: Charter of`Abd Allah b. `Ajib

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pp. 290-295

Document 53 is a confirming charter issued by the Shaykh of Qarri 'Abd Allah b. 'Ajib to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 7 Muharram 1213/21 June 1798. The text has been taken by the editors from the original.1 The charter records one episode in the longstanding..

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Document 54: Charter of ` Abd Allah b. `Ajib

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pp. 296-306

Document 54 is a confirming charter issued by the northern provincial governor 'Abd Allah b. 'Ajib to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 18 Ramadan 1214/13 February 1800. The text has been taken by the editors from the original. 1 The charter documents one episode in the longstanding dispute ...

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Document 55: Charter of Muhammad al-Nur b. Dayf Allah

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pp. 307-312

Document 55 is a charter issued by the qadi of Qarri Muhammad al-Nur b. Dayf Allah to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 18 Ramadan 1214/13 February 1800. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is frayed around all ...

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Document 56: Charter of Ibrahim b. Nayil

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pp. 313-317

Document 56 is a confirming charter issued by Arbab Ibrahim b. Nayil, Malik of the Jamu'iya, to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 16 Jumada II 1215/4 November 1800. The text has been taken by the editors from the original. 1 The present document may be seen as a sequel to and support for the rulings...

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Document 57: Letter of Nasir b. Muhammad al-Amin

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pp. 318-320

Document 57 is a letter from the northern provincial governor Nasir b. Muhammad al-Amin to the populace of the district of Berber, announcing the deposition of their district governor' Ali walad Mustafa and the appointment of his successor Nasr aI-Din. The text has been taken by the editors from the ...

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Document 58: Charter of Nasir b. Muhammad al-Amin

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pp. 321-325

Document 58 is a confirming charter issued by the northern provincial governor Nasir b. Muhammad al-AlDin to the Awlad Dolib on 27 safar 1215/20 July 1800. The text has been taken by the editors from the original.1 The present charter confirms the grant recorded in Doc. 50...

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Document 59: Charter of Nasir b. Muhammad al-Amin

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pp. 326-332

Document 59 is an originating charter issued by the northern provincial governor Nasir b. Muhammad al-Amin at the request of Faqih Ahmad b. 'Isa on 17 Muharram 1224/4 March 1809. The text has been taken by the editors from the photocopy published by Dr. 'Izz aI-Din al-Amin.l The document contains..

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Document 60: Charter of Nasir b. Muhammad al-Amin

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pp. 333-343

Document 60 is a confirming charter issued by the northern provincial governor Nasir b. Muhammad al-Amin to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali on 4 Dhu'l-Qa'da 1226/20 November 1811. The text has been taken by the editors from the original.1 The charter records one episode in the longstanding dispute...

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Document 61 : Charter of Daf Allah b. Dayf Allah

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pp. 344-349

Document 61 is a charter issued by the qadii of Qarri Daf Allah b. Dayf Allah; it contains a ruling favorable to the Awlad al-Shaykh Khojali in the longstanding dispute with their neighbors introduced in Doc. 14. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is truncated at both top and ...

Other

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pp. 350-372

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Document 62: Charter of Qasim b. Muhammad

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pp. 350-352

Document 62 is a charter issued by Qasim walad Muhammad, Shaykh of the Halawiyin, at al-Tumayd, in 1204/1789-1790. The text has been taken by the editors from a photocopy of the original.1 The document is intact, but the closing protocols are crowded into a very small space at the bottom, and are...

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Document 63: Charter of Idris b. Muhammad al-Fahl

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pp. 353-356

Document 63 is an originating charter issued by Arbflb Idris b. Muhammad al-Fahl, governor of Shandi, to Faqih Hammad b. Muhammad al-Majdhiib. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is frayed around the edges and damaged along a fold below the middle of the document, with ...

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Document 64: Charter of Muhammad b. Nimr

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pp. 357-361

Document 64 is an originating charter issued by Arbab Muhammad b. Nimr, governor of Shandi, to Faqih al-Amin b. Hammad al-Majdhub on 12 Sha'biin 1208/15 March 1794. The text has been taken by the editors from the original, which is frayed along internal folds with some..

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Document 65: Charter of Nasr al- Din b. al-Sadiq

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pp. 362-364

Document 65 is an originating charter issued by Arbiib Nasr aI-Din b. al- Sadiq for Faqih al-Amin b. Hammad al-Majdhiib and his brother Faqih al-Tayyib in 1216/1801-1802. The text has been taken by the editors from the original. 1 The land bestowed lay in the vicinity ...

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Document 66: Charter of Musa`ad b. Sa'd

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pp. 365-368

Document 66 is a confirming charter issued by Arbab Muhammad Musa 'ad b. Sa'd for Faqih Ibrahim al-Haww[u;l b. 'Abd al-Salam on 10 Safar 1220/10 May 1805. The text has been taken by the editors from the original.1...

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Document 67: Charter of Nimr b. Muhammad

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pp. 369-372

Document 67 is a charter issued by Arbab Nirnr b. Muhammad, governor of Shandi, for the Awlad al-Faqih Hammad al-Majdhub on 14 ,safar 1228/16 February 1813. The text has been taken by the editors from the original. 1...

Register of Fixed Dates

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pp. 375-376

The Court of Sinnar

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pp. 377-389

Glossary

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pp. 391-395

References

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pp. 396-399

Index of Names

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pp. 401-426


E-ISBN-13: 9781609172978
Print-ISBN-13: 9780870132803

Page Count: 426
Publication Year: 1989