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Adenauer's Foreign Office

West German Diplomacy in the Shadow of the Third Reich

Thomas W. Jr. Maulucci

Publication Year: 2012

On March 15, 1951, some eighteen months after the creation of the Fed- eral Republic of Germany, a small ceremony took place to mark the official establishment of its Foreign Office.

Published by: Northern Illinois University Press

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 1-4

Contents

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pp. v-6

List of Charts and Figures

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

The idea for a study on the West German Foreign Office came to me while I was a graduate student searching for a dissertation topic at Yale University. I had long been interested in both Germany’s foreign relations and the Adenauer era. It also struck me as intriguing that in the early 1950s, in a society that by and large was trying to put the Nazi past behind it, the return of veteran diplomats to the new ministry had...

List of Abbreviations and Key Foreign Terms Used in the Text

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pp. xiii-xiv

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Introduction

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pp. 3-11

On March 15, 1951, some eighteen months after the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), a small ceremony took place at the Museum Koenig to mark the official establishment of a Foreign Office [Auswärtiges Amt]. The Museum Koenig was a natural history museum that had been pressed into service by West German authorities to address the lack of office and meeting space in Bonn four years after the Second World War. In September 1948 it had hosted...

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1. The Auswärtiges Amt of the German Reich,1871–1945

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pp. 12-40

In the 1950's, the Federal Republic of Germany’s Auswärtiges Amt displayed significant personnel and organizational continuities with its predecessor in the German Reich. The Wilhelmstraße had implemented the foreign policies of Otto von Bismarck and Gustav Stresemann and, more omi-nously, of Wilhelm II and Adolf Hitler. As a result, interpretations of the pre-...

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2. The Foreign Affairs Question inOccupied Germany,1945–49

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pp. 41-63

When the third Reich collapsed in May 1945, the victorious Allied Powers shut down its central government, including the Auswärtiges Amt, and prepared to rule Germany themselves. The consequences for Ger-man foreign relations were both obvious and dramatic. Allied Control Council Declaration No. 2 of September 20, 1945, summed them up by announcing ...

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3. The Return of theGerman Diplomats

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pp. 64-91

One evening in the late summer 1945 Hans von Herwarth sat in an American officer’s mess in Wiesbaden with US Army captain Peter Harnden and discussed whether his family should resettle in the United States. “My thoughts had been occupied with this idea for a long time already, because I feared that the division of Germany into four zones could be permanent.” ...

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4. Foreign Policy without a Foreign Office,1949–51

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pp. 92-118

One day late in 1949 Rolf Pauls, Herbert Blankenhorn’s per-sonal assistant, accompanied Konrad Adenauer from the Museum Koenig to the Palais Schaumburg, the neoclassical palace where Adenauer now had his office. They walked by the Villa Hammerschmidt, still being used by the Belgian occupation forces. As usual, two soldiers stood guard outside. ...

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5. The Foreign Office’s “Childhood Illnesses,”1949–55

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pp. 119-144

Despite varoius announcements that the Auswärtiges Amt had completed its initial organization, the ministry during the early 1950s was clearly a work in progress.1 The first generation of West German diplomats vividly remembered the difficult circumstances they faced. According to the Federal Republic’s first mission chief in New York and Washington, Heinz ...

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6. Personnel Policy,1949–55

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pp. 145-181

THe most dramitc problem faced by the new Auswärtiges Amt arose in September 1951, when the West German daily Frankfurter Rundschau ran a five-part series by a young Wehrmacht veteran named Michael Heinze-Mansfeld on the ministry’s personnel policy. The series took its title, “Ihr naht Euch wieder [Here You Come Again],” from the first ...

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7. The Leadership Structure in the Auswärtiges Amt,1951–55

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pp. 182-213

A popular joke in Bonn in 1952 compared the Auswärtiges Amt to a train, with Adenauer, Hallstein, and Blankenhorn as the locomotive. “The locomotive is traveling at full-steam, but it suddenly turns out that the train’s cars are standing still. About one division it’s even said that it comprises the sleeping car” (a reference to Division III).1 The joke highlighted ...

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8. The Career Diplomats andAdenauer’s Foreign Policy

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pp. 214-243

The influx of veteran diplomats into leadership positions demonstrates that experienced officials desired to restart their careers after 1949 and were successful in doing so, but it says little about their intentions. More important is determining whether Wilhelmstraße veterans had great sway within the new ministry, and whether they preferred a foreign policy ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 244-250

In August 1966 , less than a year before he died, Konrad Adenauer told the Swiss historian and journalist Jean Rudolf von Salis that “they should eradicate all foreign offices root and branch!” When Salis replied that they were accused above all of formalism, or strict adherence to prescribed forms, Adenauer said, “This formalism goes deeper; the worst thing is that it ...

Appendix

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pp. 251-270

Notes

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pp. 271-350

Bibliography

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pp. 351-372

Index

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pp. 373-389


E-ISBN-13: 9781609090777
Print-ISBN-13: 9780875804637

Page Count: 304
Illustrations: 10
Publication Year: 2012