Culture, Practice, and Science
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: Northern Illinois University Press
Title Page, Copyright
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Swansea University symposium held at the Gregynog Centre in mid-Wales, May 26–29, 2005. At “T_he Science, Culture, and Practice of Soviet Medicine,” Russian scholars of the history of medicine joined historians of the f_ield from the UK, USA, Canada, and Japan. Present in their capacity as senior scholars were two individuals who attended the 1986 Toronto meeting of ...
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...commissariats” and “ministries of health,” and other domains of government. From the outset of Bolshevik rule in late 1917, Soviet government departments were known as “people’s commissariats” and they were led by “people’s commissars.” After March 3, 1946, these bodies became “ministries” led by “ministers.” For consistency and simplicity we translate...
Introduction—Experts , Expertise, and New Histories of Soviet Medi cine
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...and practiced during the lifetime of the Soviet Union? For the historian of medicine, the singularity of the Soviet experience suggests a range of questions that clamor for attention. What did revolutionary upheaval do to lay the foundations for a seemingly new type of medicine? What preoccupations, inclinations, and exclusions made medicine “revolutionary” ...
Chapter 1—Toward a Soviet Psychiatry
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At the start of the twentieth century, Russian physicians, most of whom worked in the public sector, were in an uneasy situation. T_he state was the source of both their status—it recognized their medical credentials and guaranteed their employment—and rigid constraints. T_he same law that secured their expert status weighed heavily on their activity. T_he Russian ...
Chapter 2—Fighting Plague in South East European Russia, 1917–25
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On October 29, 1897, the department of medicine of the Kiev St. Vladimir Imperial University took the decision to publish Professor Grigorii Nikolaevich Minkh’s book on the history of the Vetlianka plague epidemic.1 Plague broke out in the village of Vetlianka, halfway between Astrakhan’ and Tsaritsyn on the Volga’s right bank, in September 1878, and in the course of ...
Chapter 3—Foreign Expertise on Russian Terrain
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In the 1920s, Russia became a f_ield site for experts in medicine and public health from a variety of countries bent on seeing for themselves the “new” Soviet health care and exploring possibilities for medical research on Russian terrain.1 T_he experts from “away” were a varied lot, with a mix of backgrounds, scientif_ic interests, and agendas. Elsewhere I have examined ...
Chapter 4—Behind the Closed Door
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...was already f_illed to capacity, yet eager crowds thronged outside, held back by the police.1 Such scenes were perhaps not uncommon at the more sensationalized debates and agitational trials that took place during the 1920s.2 What makes this happening in January 1928 dif_ferent is that unlike the various animate enemies and usual suspects being put on trial—the folk ...
Chapter 5—Defining Sexual Maturity as the Soviet Alternative to an Age of Consent
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...adulthood, marked by a specif_ic age of majority. Young people below this age are protected from sexual assault and from the supposed harm of premature consensual sex. In modern states this protection is normally based on an age of consent, or, as it was of_ten called a century ago, an “age of protection.”1 Most European states only began f_ixing ages of protection ...
Chapter 6—Vaccination against Tuberculosis with BCG
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...and 1941 in the Russian Republic (RSFSR), by far the largest and most populous of the 15 republics of the USSR, was an exercise in socialized preventive medicine that demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of the Soviet medical system. In 1937, af_ter 11 years of limited trials with the BCG (Bacilles Calmette Guérin) vaccine, the tuberculosis experts of the ...
Chapter 7—Between Power and Experts
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Smolensk, on the western border of the Soviet Union. Its international wagon-lit was occupied by a group of high-ranking Soviet bureaucrats, including Chief Surgeon of the Red Army academician Nikolai Burdenko; the head of the RSFSR People’s Commissariat of Education Viacheslav Potemkin; president of the Soviet Red Cross Society and deputy of the ...
Chapter 8—Medical Expertise and the 1946–47 Famine
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...opportunity to study a once forbidden problem: Soviet famine. At the end of the 1980s formerly secret state and party collections in central and local archives were declassif_ied. Scholars set about gathering the evidence for the famines of 1921–22, 1932–33, and 1946–47, publishing collections of documents, articles, and monographs. T_he f_irst works on ...
Chapter 9—“Abortion Is Killing Us”
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...to make legal abortion available to women on demand. Abortion was recriminalized in 1936 as part of a broad ef_fort to strengthen the family and in conjunction with Stalin’s concerns about population decline. Under the new policy, clinical (legal) termination was only available to women with of_f_icially approved medical conditions.1 However, except for an initial drop ...
Chapter 10—The Political Economy of Water Supply Under Late Stalinism
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T_he ecological disaster of the Soviet Union’s rivers and lakes f_irst came to widespread attention in the 1970s, with the publication of Ze’ev Wolfson’s The Destruction of Nature in the Soviet Union,1 followed by the much larger, and now much better known work of Feshbach and Friendly on “ecocide.”2 Chris Burton’s essay in this volume discusses the reactions of ...
Chapter 11— Destalinizationas Detoxification ?
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...communal hygiene developed as a means to reconcile health protection with very rapid industrial development under Stalin. Entering the Khrushchev years, most communal hygienists understood human-created, or anthropogenic, threats to human health cautiously, even conservatively. T_heir f_ield therefore largely ignored the dangers indicated by broader ...
Chapter 12—White Coats and Tea with Raspberry Jam
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Soviet medical care for children was, like other aspects of welfare provision for the young, the focus of much propaganda attention. In 1934, Pioneer Pravda claimed, “Enormous strides have been made during recent years in the f_ield of children’s health care. Even two or three years ago, children were getting medical care in the same out-patients’ departments as adults. ...
ABBREVIATIONS AND GLOSSARY
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GARF Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii (State Archive GASO Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Saratovskoi oblasti (State Archive of guberniia Provincial-level territory in tsarist and Soviet Russia until 1929krai Provincial-level territory, usually in a remote region (pl. kraia)LOGAV Leningradskii oblastnoi gosudarstvennyi arkhiv v g. Vyborge ...
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
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Frances L. Bernstein is associate professor at Drew University, New Jersey, USA. She is the author of The Dictatorship of Sex: Lifestyle Advice for the Soviet Masses (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2007). She is christopher Burton is assistant professor at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. He has published articles on the medical history of ...
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Page Count: 312
Illustrations: 4 tables, 2 figures
Publication Year: 2010