Space-Time Perspectives on Early Colonial Moquegua
Publication Year: 2014
Space-Time Perspectives on Early Colonial Moquegua looks at the encounters between existing populations and newcomers from successive waves of colonization, from indigenous expansion states (Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inka) to the foreign Spaniards, and the way each group “re-spatialized” the landscape according to its own political and economic ends. Viewing these spatializations from political, economic, and religious perspectives, Rice considers both the ideological and material occurrences.
Concluding with a special focus on the multiple space-time considerations involved in Spanish-inspired ceramics from the region, Space-Time Perspectives on Early Colonial Moquegua integrates the local and rural with the global and urban in analyzing the events and processes of colonialism. It is a vital contribution to the literature of Andean studies and will appeal to students and scholars of archaeology, historical archaeology, history, ethnohistory, and globalization.
Published by: University Press of Colorado
Title Page, Copyright
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Since the early 1990s I’ve fretted about not meeting my responsibilities for full and timely publication of the data from the Moquegua Bodegas Project. I can trot out the usual excuses: increasing administrative duties, a return to fieldwork in the Maya area, supervision of graduate students, and so on. In 2009, however, ...
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Part 1: Introduction to Moquegua and Its Environment
The interactions and exchanges that transpire in extended intercultural encounters typically occur in places that are familiar to one party and alien to the other. Familiarity of place derives from the way it is experienced by its occupants and the meaning(s) assigned to it. Places and their meanings, in turn, are...
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Moquegua—more specifically, the valley of the Río Osmore and its tributary streams—has a long history of contacts with, and colonization by, expansionist states. Colonization begins at least as early as the middle of the first millennium of the Common Era, with settlers from hundreds of kilometers distant: Wari...
2. The “Natural” Landscape of Moquegua
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The Department of Moquegua is a small and historically relatively impoverished political unit in the western Andean watershed, in the far south of the present nation-state of Peru. It is bordered by the Departments of Arequipa to the west, Puno to the northeast, and Tacna to the southeast and by the Pacific Ocean on the...
Part 2: Indigenous Spacesand Places
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Moquegua’s long history of occupation began more than 10,000 years ago, with the large Ring Site shell mound registering early exploitation of Peru’s productive coastal waters (Sandweiss et al. 1989). But population sizes and densities were low, leaving little evidence of how the landscape was perceived and how (or if) significant places were constructed by its early...
3. Late Pre-Hispanic Colonization and Re-spatialization
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The Osmore drainage was repeatedly settled by agricultural colonists from distant empires with varied ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. Colonization began in the middle of the first millennium of the Common Era, during the Middle Horizon (MH, ca. AD 500– 1100), as the local indigenous farmers...
4. Inka Spaces and Places
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Sometime in the late fifteenth century, the Inkas inserted themselves into the region that is now southwestern Peru. In contrast to the multiple accounts of real or legendary events of Inka imperial expansion, only one written account is known of the Inkas’ intrusion from the Titicaca basin into the Osmore valley: the 1609...
5. Language and Toponyms
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Moquegua’s long history on the peripheries of empire meant that people with varied ethno-politico-linguistic identities colonized the region during the Middle Horizon (MH), Late Intermediate Period (LIP), Late Horizon (LH), and Colonial Period. Whether their presence in Moquegua was forced or voluntary, these...
Part 3: Spanish-Colonial Spaces and Places
Salient questions in situations of conquest and colonization concern power relations: How was knowledge of an unfamiliar space acquired, assimilated, and strategically applied in imposing new forms of administrative control and social order? In terms of Moquegua’s experience, such questions can be rephrased in several ways: How were indigenous spaces and places...
6. Spanish Order and Re-spatialization
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In Iberia, the centuries immediately preceding Spain’s invasion of the Western Hemisphere were dominated by the events and myths surrounding reconquista (reconquest), the prolonged internal warfare and “wave of advance” colonization that characterized the Christian retaking of the peninsula after its fall to Islamic control in AD 711..
7. Encomiendas in Moquegua
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Spanish colonization of the Andean landscape was implemented through the institution of encomienda, grants of indigenous populations awarded to individual conquerors. These awards began to be made as Francisco Pizarro and his men crossed the northern Peruvian desert and were later implemented with conquest of...
8. Torata Alta
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By the early 1570s, the indigenous communities of Torata and Moquegua were greatly diminished, while Spanish occupation of the confluence zone of the Osmore’s tributaries was expanding. For the Spaniards, moving small groups of natives out of the Moquegua valley and sequestering them in a separate settlement was not only a convenience for administrative order...
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Evidence of early Spanish transformations of the Moquegua landscape is evident in the Yaravico toponymic zone in the upper mid-valley. The Yaravico toponymic zone is a large area of high-quality agricultural land on the east side of the upper Moquegua valley, on the south (left) bank of the Río Tumilaca and immediately below its join with the Río Torata...
10. Religion . . . and Resistance?
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Christian practice in medieval Europe can be differentiated spatially and temporally, a key variable being the role of popular, local cults versus that of the papacy and institutions of the Roman Catholic Church (Weinstein and Bell 1982: 182–91). Catholicism operated on two levels. One was “the Church Universal, based on the sacraments, the Roman liturgy, and...
Part 4: Decorative Spaces and Decorating Places
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As explained in the preface, the chapters in this volume explore spatialization—the production and meanings of spaces and places—in colonial encounters. The emphasis is primarily on spaces and places in a physical landscape, both natural (a region) and built, and also on political ecology in terms of the power relations...
11. Transcending Worlds
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Majolica is the Anglicized term for a western European fine earthenware ceramic known in Spanish as mayólica and in Italian as maiólica. Other terms include faience and faenza (French and Italian, respectively) and delft in the Netherlands and England. The term majolica/maiólica may have originated with fourteenth-or fifteenth-century Italians who obtained this pottery...
12. Technological Spaces and Tranfers
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Spanish majolica has a centuries-long multicultural history that spans all of the Old World and combines the refined technological know-how of glass working and metalworking with the ancient craft of making earthenware pottery.2 Majolica’s foundations lie in glass making in the Near East where, by the fourth century...
13. Ceramic Spatialization
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Tin-enameled earthenwares, commonly known as majolica or loza, have long been of interest to historical archaeologists working at Spanish-colonial sites. Existing studies are primarily descriptive and classificatory, often for purposes of deriving chronology (Deagan 1987; Goggin 1968; Lister and Lister 1974, 1982; Rice 1997). Increasingly, analyses have focused...
Part 5: Conclusions
The preceding chapters considered the “espacio” Moqueguano, a small politically and ecologically distinct internal region within the greater Spanish-colonial espacio Peruano (Sempat Assadourian 1972: 11), from varying perspectives. These perspectives—temporally pre- and post-conquest, culturally those of colonized...
14. Moquegua’s Landscapes, Spaces, and Places through Time
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The late prehistory of Moquegua illustrates Henri Lefebvre’s point, in The Production of Space (1991), that space produces and is produced by power: Moquegua was for centuries a sociopolitically peripheral space of colonialism produced and reproduced by a series of powerful centers located outside the boundaries of...
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Page Count: 360
Publication Year: 2014