A History of the Centennial State, Fifth Edition
Publication Year: 2013
The new edition tells of conflicts, shifting alliances, and changing ways of life as Hispanic, European, and African American settlers flooded into a region that was already home to Native Americans. Providing a balanced treatment of the entire state’s history—from Grand Junction to Lamar and from Trinidad to Craig—the authors also reveal how Denver and its surrounding communities developed and gained influence.
While continuing to elucidate the significant impact of mining, agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism on Colorado, the fifth edition broadens and focuses its coverage by consolidating material on Native Americans into one chapter and adding a new chapter on sports history. The authors also expand their discussion of the twentieth century with updated sections on the environment, economy, politics, and recent cultural conflicts. New illustrations, updated statistics, and an extensive bibliography including Internet resources enhance this edition.
Published by: University Press of Colorado
Download PDF (220.6 KB)
Download PDF (57.5 KB)
Download PDF (56.1 KB)
Download PDF (42.9 KB)
We also thank Rebecca Lintz, former director of the Stephen Hart Library at History Colorado, and Margi Aguiar, Barbara Dey, Karyl Klein, Debra Neiswonger, and Ruba Sadi of that library. Over the years History Colorado state historians Maxine Benson, William J. Convery III, David Halaas, and Modupe Labode, as well as staff members Larry Borowsky, Ben Fogelberg, Steve Grinstead, ...
Download PDF (118.6 KB)
United States—played an especially important role on the American frontier. During the years of pioneering, the frontier city was an advance base of supply, furnishing food, clothing, and tools. When settlers began to produce a surplus of goods, the city provided credit and transportation and found outside buy-ers. Because the interregional and international exchange of agricultural and ...
1. Mountains and Plains
Download PDF (157.0 KB)
...he was taken to Santa Fe and later deeper into Mexico. The Spanish returned him The next US exploration of portions of what would become Colorado, a twenty-man expedition led by Major Stephen H. Long in 1820, branded the high plains a Great American Desert, “almost wholly unfit for cultivation, and unin-habitable by a people depending upon agriculture for their subsistence.”3 More ...
2. The First Coloradans
Download PDF (228.8 KB)
Jesse D. Figgins had excavated spear points near Folsom, New Mexico, that led him and other archaeologists to conclude that people had lived in North America for thousands of years. The Dent finds confirmed that view. E. Steve Cassells, in The Archaeology of Colorado, noted that Dent put “Colorado on the map for the first site in the New World with firm evidence for the association ...
3. New Mexico’s Northern Frontier
Download PDF (206.8 KB)
...the mountains, and the western plateau country. The eastern plains north of the Arkansas River and the Front Range were confirmed as US territories. In 1821 Mexico declared its independence from Spain, and former Spanish lands became Mexican domain. After the United States defeated Mexico in the 1846–48 Mexican-American War, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended Mexico’s ...
4. The Pikes Peak Gold Rush
Download PDF (292.4 KB)
...hundreds of miles of wagon ruts with sterile granite at the end. To most Fifty-niners it was a shortcut to success, with gold or at least a profitable business wait-Rumors of gold had filtered out of the Rockies since the sixteenth century. In 1807, when explorer Zebulon Pike met trapper James Purcell in Santa Fe, Purcell told of gold he had found in the region eventually known as Pikes Peak country. ...
5. The Era of the Booster
Download PDF (250.9 KB)
.... . . of earnest-souled, iron-willed, active-minded citizens” Simple enthusiasm had been enough to bring settlers and investors flocking to the Pikes Peak country during the first years of the gold rush. But enthusi-asm quickly cooled. The Civil War sidetracked the nation and strangled west-ward expansion. Colorado’s gold ores proved difficult to refine, and its Native ...
6. Exterminate Them!”: Natives 1850s–90s
Download PDF (227.7 KB)
...the reality that in the land of victors there were also losers. area that would one day be Colorado. The Cheyenne-Arapaho alliance and the Comanche-Kiowa combination dominated the eastern plains, while the Utes ruled the mountains and the western plateaus. Between the 1820s and the mid-1850s it appeared the Indians, numbering probably fewer than 20,000, and a few ...
Interlude: Coloradans in 1876
Download PDF (134.3 KB)
One of the visitors to Jackson’s exhibit surely must have been Sue Hall of Central City. When she returned to Colorado in mid-July, her husband, Frank Hall, editor of the Daily Central City Register, would have listened with fascina-tion to her description of the sights of Philadelphia, from the Jackson pictures to the great Corliss engine whose 2,500-horsepower capacity symbolized the prog-...
7. The Bonanza Years
Download PDF (313.1 KB)
The gulch’s best prospects lay not in its gold but in silver locked in lead carbon-ate ores. As early as 1872, optimistic locals sensed value in the rocks and real-ized that smelters might make the carbonates pay. During the next three years, several miners purchased claims they thought were rich in silver. Ore samples furnished by William Stevens and Alvinus Wood convinced smelter men from ...
8. The Businessman’s State
Download PDF (261.1 KB)
...four exhibition wings gave it mass, and towers lent it grandeur. Long rows of arched windows lit exhibits, making it an impressive example of architecture at the service of promotion. The building opened again in 1883 and 1884, before thinning crowds and mounting debts closed its doors. In 1891 the Mineral Palace in Pueblo took over its function. With twenty-five domes, its columns topped by ...
9. A Generation of Industrial Warfare
Download PDF (224.5 KB)
...resorted to a sympathy strike by Cripple Creek miners. On August 8 they had walked out on the mines that shipped ore to nonunion mills and smelters in Colorado City. After a mine f_ire and several beatings marred the peacefulness of the strike, Colorado governor James H. Peabody had answered the petition of local businesspeople with units of the Colorado National Guard. His order of ...
10. Farming and Ranching in the American Desert
Download PDF (300.0 KB)
This advertisement from the Colorado Business Directory, 1876, capitalized on the success of the Greeley and Longmont colonies. (Denver Public Library, Western Gem and Ovando Hollister’s Mines of Colorado devoted chapters to the delights of piedmont farming, and William Byers frequently promoted agriculture. Their optimism, however, could not hide their fears that without a large farm-...
11. Women in Politics and Society
Download PDF (284.9 KB)
...joined local suffrage partisans such as Margaret W. Campbell to barnstorm the state in September 1877. In Denver they enjoyed the backing of former terri-torial governor John Evans. In Greeley they counted on help from Nathan C. Meeker, the town’s founder. By railroad and stagecoach they reached remote places such as Lake City in the San Juan Mountains, where Anthony spoke on a ...
12. A Diverse People
Download PDF (416.5 KB)
...stream, and in the early twentieth century migrants from Japan and Mexico furColorado shared in that variety. In 1860 the population of Pikes Peak country included in Kansas and Nebraska Territories consisted of less than 8 percent foreignborn. Among them were 624 Irish, 576 Germans, and 352 English. The numbers increased dramatically in the 1860s. In 1870 more than 6,000 foreign...
13. Scenery, Health, and Tourism
Download PDF (321.9 KB)
...the air and mountains were assets that would “bring people and money into this Among the most venturesome tourists, William Byers regularly entrusted the Rocky Mountain News to his assistants while he went to the mountains. In August 1868 he accompanied John Wesley Powell in the first recorded ascent of Longs Peak; a few years later he joined the Ferdinand Hayden party on the ...
14. Denver and the Reform Crusade
Download PDF (254.7 KB)
Denver became the break-of-bulk point for goods shipped in from the East and the Midwest. Carloads of freight could be stored until needed, split into smaller consignments, and shipped out again to fill the bins and shelves of Georgetown’s, Leadville’s, and Aspen’s stores. Simultaneously, Denver factories began manufac-turing mining equipment for the Rocky Mountain market. By the early 1890s ...
Interlude: Coloradans in 1917
Download PDF (130.6 KB)
...“Little Zeb,” a World War I tank, visited Colorado Springs to raise money for the war conservation card is just as serious .uni00A0.uni00A0. as failure to con-the turn of the century she was combining writing romantic novels with doing reform work for the Democratic Party. A delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1900, vice chair of the state party, and member of the first charter ...
15. The 1920s
Download PDF (284.4 KB)
...and minerals, it suffered as agriculture and mining fell on hard times. The clos-ing of smelters in Denver, Salida, and Pueblo, as well as the abandonment of the state’s pioneer sugar factory at Grand Junction, were symptomatic of the prob-lem. By 1940 only 35,000 factory workers were bringing home paychecks, down 30 percent from a peak in the late 1910s. Manufacturing, mining, and farming, ...
16. The Great Depression
Download PDF (272.3 KB)
...vigor, Colorado took little direct responsibility for the economic welfare of its citizens. As late as January 1933 the legislature reaffirmed that public relief was the province of county and municipal authorities. Supported by the philosophy of self-help, legislators struggled toward a balanced budget aided by neither a state President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “New Deal” gave Coloradans hope not ...
17. World War II
Download PDF (264.7 KB)
Base)—named after Denverite Francis Brown Lowry, an aviator killed in World War I—began instructing airmen in aerial photography in 1938. West of Denver the Remington Arms Company rushed 265 buildings at the Denver Ordnance Plant to completion between February 17 and October 25, 1941, and produced 14 million rounds of small-arms ammunition in December. Five days before the ...
18. Postwar Boom
Download PDF (241.6 KB)
Would the release of millions of men from the military throw the nation back On V-J Day, Camp Hale was already reduced to a military contingent of 500. What would happen to Leadville if Hale closed completely? Would postwar demand for molybdenum be sufficient to keep the Cloud City alive? As Camp Carson prepared to repatriate its remaining 6,613 German prisoners of war, some ...
19. Postwar Politics and Other Diversions
Download PDF (281.0 KB)
By publicizing grim statistics, Sabin demonstrated that improving public health was literally a matter of life or death. Poliomyelitis, a crippler that some-times killed, felled a few people every year and occasionally flared into an epi-demic, as in 1943 when 292 cases were reported. From 1940 to 1944, more than 100 people in the state died from measles and a similar number from diphtheria. ...
20. Troubled Times
Download PDF (291.5 KB)
Silent Spring (1962) was serialized in the Denver Post, Coloradans learned in September 1963 that the nation’s milk contained record levels of radioactive The issues of 1963—war in Vietnam, civil rights, the environment—soon took center stage. The Civil Rights Movement, initially focused on ending discrimi-nation against African Americans, was embraced by those anxious to advance ...
21. Environmental Challenges
Download PDF (346.8 KB)
...in negotiating for the games the boosters had “lied a bit.”3newness, new faces, people in tune with modern issues and modern times.” Former governor John Love judged, “The sea change in Colorado politics occurred with the Olympics .uni00A0.uni00A0. Prior to that time the state was pretty well in agreement on In the early 1970s, matters that had once concerned relatively few people—air ...
22. Economic Peaks and Valleys
Download PDF (316.1 KB)
...compared with that of lenders such as Key Savings, Columbia Savings, and Silverado Savings and Loan. They failed in the late 1980s, leaving the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC), an arm of the federal government, to pay off their depositors and assume their bad debts. By the early 1990s RTC held the mort-gages on such diverse properties as the ten-story Valley Federal Plaza building in ...
Download PDF (338.9 KB)
...team had little to brag about until 1967, when they hired Floyd Little, an All-American running back from Syracuse University. Little was little—just 5'10" and 195 pounds—but he was the first Bronco giant. He played for the team until 1975, leading professional football in rushing for six of those years—a performance that helped bring him induction into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2001....
24. Cultural and Political Wars
Download PDF (217.1 KB)
...shepherded by Republican legislators such as Fred Anderson, Chuck Berry, Bev Bledsoe, Al Meiklejohn, and Ted Strickland—leaders as powerful in their spheres as Romer and Lamm were in theirs. With years of experience, they understood the complexities of the legislative process and the intricacies of state government. Much of the power within the legislature rested with the Joint Budget Committee ...
Download PDF (72.4 KB)
...1842–53 John C. Frémont explores the West, including part of Colorado. Ten of his men die in the San Juan Mountains on his fourth expedition in 1848.1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo transfers southern and western Colorado from 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie signed with the Cheyennes, Arapahos, and other First permanent Hispanic settlement in Colorado is established at San Luis....
Download PDF (112.1 KB)
...trict led to his primary election defeat in 1972 by Alan Merson, Baca’s sheep herds and wealth also grew. A dominant figure in Elected to the territorial legislature as a Republican in 1870, Hispanic minority. He died in 1874. His large house on Trinidad’s Main Street is now a Casimiro Barela, the most prominent Hispanic leader in early Colorado, was born ...
Download PDF (53.2 KB)
Robert W. Steele, one.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylefive.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle–six.taboldstyleone.taboldstyleWilliam Gilpin, one.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylesix.taboldstyleone.taboldstyle–six.taboldstyletwo.taboldstyleJohn Evans, one.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylesix.taboldstyletwo.taboldstyle–six.taboldstylefive.taboldstyleAlexander Cummings, one.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylesix.taboldstylefive.taboldstyle–six.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyleAlexander Cameron Hunt, one.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylesix.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle–six.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle...
Colorado Population and Economic Statistics
Download PDF (65.0 KB)
...1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Number of farms one.taboldstyle,seven.taboldstylethree.taboldstyleeight.taboldstyle four.taboldstyle,five.taboldstylezero.taboldstylesix.taboldstyle one.taboldstylesix.taboldstyle,three.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle two.taboldstylefour.taboldstyle,seven.taboldstylezero.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle four.taboldstylesix.taboldstyle,one.taboldstyleseven.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle five.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle,nine.taboldstylethree.taboldstylefour.taboldstyle five.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle,nine.taboldstylefive.taboldstylesix.taboldstyle five.taboldstyleone.taboldstyle,four.taboldstylethree.taboldstylesix.taboldstyle four.taboldstylefive.taboldstyle,five.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyleeight.taboldstyle three.taboldstylethree.taboldstyle,one.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylethree.taboldstyle two.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle,nine.taboldstylefive.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle two.taboldstylesix.taboldstyle,five.taboldstylezero.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle two.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle,zero.taboldstylezero.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle two.taboldstyleeight.taboldstyle,two.taboldstylesix.taboldstyleeight.taboldstyle three.taboldstylesix.taboldstyle,one.taboldstylezero.taboldstylezero.taboldstyleAcres irrigated — — eight.taboldstylenine.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle,seven.taboldstylethree.taboldstylefive.taboldstyle one.taboldstyle,six.taboldstyleone.taboldstyleone.taboldstyle,two.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyleone.taboldstyle two.taboldstyle,seven.taboldstylenine.taboldstyletwo.taboldstyle,zero.taboldstylethree.taboldstyletwo.taboldstyle three.taboldstyle,three.taboldstylefour.taboldstyleeight.taboldstyle,three.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylefive.taboldstyle three.taboldstyle,three.taboldstylenine.taboldstylethree.taboldstyle,six.taboldstyleone.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle two.taboldstyle,four.taboldstylesix.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle,five.taboldstylefour.taboldstyleeight.taboldstyle two.taboldstyle,eight.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyletwo.taboldstyle,seven.taboldstylefive.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle two.taboldstyle,six.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylefour.taboldstyle,seven.taboldstylefive.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle two.taboldstyle,eight.taboldstylenine.taboldstylefour.taboldstyle,nine.taboldstyleeight.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle three.taboldstyle,four.taboldstylefive.taboldstyleeight.taboldstyle,zero.taboldstylethree.taboldstyleone.taboldstyle three.taboldstyle,zero.taboldstyleone.taboldstylethree.taboldstyle,seven.taboldstylethree.taboldstylethree.taboldstyle three.taboldstyle,four.taboldstyletwo.taboldstylezero.taboldstyle,one.taboldstyletwo.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle two.taboldstyle,eight.taboldstylesix.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle,nine.taboldstylefive.taboldstyleseven.taboldstyle[one.taboldstylenine.taboldstylefive.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle][one.taboldstylenine.taboldstylesix.taboldstylenine.taboldstyle] ...
Colorado Facts and Symbols
Download PDF (60.4 KB)
...since its creation in the early twentieth century, slipped to sec-2002 from 14,433 feet to 14,440 feet. The state’s highest paved NATIONAL PARKS (NP), MONUMENTS (NM), AND HISTORIC SITES (NHS): Bent’s Old National Park, Sand Creek Massacre Site (NHS). In addition, the state has more than a NICKNAME: Centennial State because it became a state on August 1, 1876 (thirty-eighth state), ...
Download PDF (184.6 KB)
Download PDF (171.3 KB)
...with emphasis on scholarly contributions. To save space we have apologize. Fortunately, the Internet gives readers a way to repair our oversights and to easily find additional material. The Center list of recent publications and book reviews on Colorado topics. accessible sources follows the list of traditional print sources....
Download PDF (176.2 KB)
Page Count: 572
Publication Year: 2013