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The Archaeology of Regional Interaction

Religion, Warfare, and Exchange across the American Southwest and Beyond

Edited by Michelle Hegmon

Publication Year: 2008

How and why did styles, materials, conflicts, and religious ideas spread across prehistoric landscapes? The Archaeology of Regional Interaction investigates these questions, using the rich resource of the American Southwest and covering periods from the Folsom to the nineteenth century. Editor Michelle Hegmon has compiled superbly researched essays into a comprehensive examination of regional interaction that has proved itself a pivotal archaeological text. The Archaeology of Regional Interaction surpasses most regional studies, which only focus on settlement patterns or exchange, and considers other forms of interaction, such as intermarriage and the spread of religious practices. Contributors focus especially on understanding the social processes that underlie archaeological evidence of interaction. The essays in this volume examine what regional systems involve, in terms of political and economic relations, and how they can be identified. One essay by Steven LeBlanc provides a sweeping analysis of conflict, a form of regional interaction that has received relatively little attention in the Southwest until recently. A series of chapters devoted to expanding the coverage beyond the borders of the traditional Southwest examines the surrounding areas, including Nevada and Utah, northern Mexico, and the Plains.The volume also provides a unique treatment of religion - including manifestations such as Flower World Iconography, Medicine Societies, and ceremonial textiles - as a form of regional interrelation. This paperback edition will be an important resource for scholars investigating regional systems and for archaeologists of the American Southwest.

Published by: University Press of Colorado

Contents

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pp. v-vi

Illustrations

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pp. vii-x

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xiii

"Southwestern archaeologists participate in a variety of professional meetings that address particular subregional cultures, such as the Mogollon and Anasazi. They also convene conferences or symposia, in the context of national professional meetings or as multiple-day advanced seminars, that are tightly focused on particular thematic issues..."

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvi

"As time and space contract and seem to lose coherence in the swirling late twentieth century, our world grows ever smaller. As archaeologists living and working in this world, we cannot help but be affected by the complex interconnections that are so much a part of our lives. We see these interconnections driving through the district of maquiladoras..."

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1: Changing Perceptions of Regional Interaction in the Prehistoric Southwest

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pp. 1-21

"Research at a regional scale and interest in regional interaction have along, though uneven, history in the study of southwestern prehistory. Early exploratory work mostly investigated particular sites and localities, but it also raised questions about large-scale interaction, such as Fewkes’s (1896) recognition of the distribution of Pacific shell on sites in northeast..."

Part 1: Regional Issues and Regional Systems

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2: What is a Regional System?

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pp. 25-40

"Southwestern archaeologists need to reevaluate the utility of the regional system concept. When first proposed in 1979, this concept marked aparadigm shift for interpreting the remains of past societies, and in the intervening years it has become part of the everyday vocabulary of south-western archaeologists. After almost two decades of application to a..."

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3: Regional Interaction and Warfare int he Late Prehistoric Southwest

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pp. 41-70

"The impact of warfare on the sociopolitical landscape of the South-west has been largely unrecognized. This oversight applies particularly to the late prehistoric period, a time when—as is becoming increasingly clear—we know warfare was playing a major role in community formation and interaction. Because the act or process of warfare..."

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4: Scale, Interaction, and Regional Analysis in late Pueblo Prehistory

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pp. 71-98

"Examination of regional-scale processes in prehistory requires explicit consideration of what we mean by regions. Definitions vary with research interests and the times, but the boundaries of regions are usually defined by topography and the distribution of a number of material culture traits. As such, regions are essentially the scale within which..."

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5: Regional Interactions and Regional Systems in the Protohistoric Rio Grande

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pp. 99-118

"In parts of the Southwest, groups of sites having similarities in material culture on a broad geographic scale have been described as regional systems. More specifically, such regional systems are thought to involve a variety of interactions, including regular contact between clusters of interacting villages (see Neitzel, Chapter 2, this volume)...."

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6: Regional Approaches with Unbounded Systems

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pp. 119-147

"Perhaps more than any other topic in archaeology, Paleoindian studies have been limited by the tendency for myopic focus on individualsites. Although important exceptions are found in James Judge’s (1973 )research in the Albuquerque Basin and James Hester’s (1975) workon the Llano Estacado, regional studies of Paleoindian occupation in..."

Part 2: Interregional Economies and Exchange

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7: Theorizing the Political Economy of Southwestern Exchange

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pp. 151-166

"Recent years have seen a renewal of interest in the phenomenon of precontact exchange in the Americas. This is indicated by Schortmanand Urban’s (1992b) edited volume on power, resources, and interregional interaction and the two-volume set on North and Middle American exchange systems edited by Baugh and Ericson (Baugh and Ericson..."

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8: Networks of Shell Ornament Exchange

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pp. 167-187

"Both large and small quantities of shell and other exotic materials moved great distances across the Southwest. The Hohokam have long been known as the “shell suppliers” of the Southwest (Brand 1938; Haury1976), yet a single site in northern Mexico contained many more shell ornaments than have been found in the Hohokam area and the rest of..."

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9: Exchange, Assumptions, and Mortuary Goods in Pre-Paquine Chihuahua, Mexico

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pp. 189-208

"Archaeologists may fantasize about being able to directly observe the prehistoric movement of goods, but reality is not so kind. All interpretations of prehistoric exchange—from the 'prehistoric trade route' maps of an earlier generation to World Systems Theory—are laden with assumptions. Early researchers focused on the quantity and the direction..."

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10: Pottery, Food, Hides, and Women

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pp. 209-231

"During the 1970s and 1980s, archaeologists began to pay increasing attention to the mounting evidence for long-distance exchange among the peoples of the American Southwest and adjoining areas. This interestwas motivated by broadly held theoretical assumptions regarding the role of exchange in constituting and maintaining systems of regional and..."

Part 3: Beyond the Borders of the Traditional Southwest

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11: Scale, Innovation, and Change in the Desert West

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pp. 235-256

"Mesoamerican-southwestern interaction has been a focus of southwestern archaeology ever since A. V. Kidder first acknowledged its possibility. Links between various southwestern and Mesoamerican cultures have been sought by archaeologists, and ties between different groups have been hypothesized. Results of this effort have been mixed, largely..."

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12: Life at the Edge

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pp. 257-274

"Prehistoric Pueblo settlements in southern Nevada from ther westernmost tip of the traditional Southwest. On its western edge the boundary of the Southwest is sharper than on most of its periphery. In southern Nevada traditional southwestern horticulture encountered the aridity of the Mojave Desert. Here the margins of the Muddy and Virgin Rivers (Map 12.1) supported Pueblo settlements; farther west,..."

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13: Fremont Farmers

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pp. 275-293

"The theme of traditional Southwest borders and what lies beyond them underscores problems with conceptualizations of cultural boundedness that have dogged archaeologists for decades. Despite recent emphasison interrelated systems and spheres of interaction, in practice our research interests more often constrain us to focus on particular..."

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14: Prehistoric Movements of Northern Uto-Aztecan Peoples along the Northwestern Edge of the Southwest

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pp. 295-315

"There are at least three well-known archaeological truths regarding the northern San Juan region of the American Southwest between A.D. 750 and the present: (1) At some time and from somewhere the Hopi language must have moved into northern Arizona, since that language is classified within Northern Uto–Aztecan and is related to the languages..."

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15: Aggregation, Warfare, and the Spread of the Mesoamerican Tradition

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pp. 317-337

"This chapter considers some external circumstances, actions, and processes that may have surrounded the formation of the earliest large polities in the Southwest. In some senses the local polities that formed in the Hohokam, Pueblo, and Mogollon areas around A.D. 775–1150 can be seen as the final and most distant reverberations of phenomena..."

Part 4: The Spread of Religious Systems

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pp. 339-

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16: Katsinas and Kiva Abondonment at Homol'ovi

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pp. 341-360

"Cultural deposits in prehistoric sites give archaeologists a rich, albeit indirect, record of past human behavior. Stratigraphic analysis, with the help of behavioral correlates drawn from observations of ethnoarchaeologists and ethnographers, allows prehistorians to reconstruct the depositional events that created the archaeological record. From a behavioral perspective, religious systems and rituals consist in part of..."

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17: Navajo Ritual Histories, Organization, and Architecture

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pp. 361-379

"Much archaeological research in the Southwest since the late 1970s has focused on the degree of complexity in prehistoric southwestern societies. The Grasshopper (University of Arizona) versus Chavez Pass (Arizona State University) debate (Graves et al. 1982; Upham 1982) dealt with the complexity in the Pueblo IV period (ca. A.D. 1300–1450). The..."

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18: Cultural Collapse and Reorganization

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pp. 381-409

"In August 1992 a prehistoric medicine society assemblage was recovered from San Lazaro Pueblo, a privately owned ruin in the Galisteo Basin south of Santa Fe, New Mexico (Map 18.1). Consultations with Native American descendants confirmed the nature of the assemblage..."

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19: The Flower World in Prehistoric Southwest Material Culturre

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pp. 411-447

"Uto-Aztecan peoples of Mesoamerica and the Southwest, together with neighboring Pueblo and Mayan groups, share a system of verbal imagery in which a flowery spirit world is evoked, particularly in songs (Hill1992). The verbal Flower World complex includes several elements, all where living beings have their spiritual dimension. The..."

List of Contributors

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pp. 449-

Index

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pp. 451-467


E-ISBN-13: 9781607321224
E-ISBN-10: 160732122X
Print-ISBN-13: 9780870819049
Print-ISBN-10: 0870819046

Page Count: 486
Illustrations: 2 b/w photos, 31 line art illustrations, 22 maps
Publication Year: 2008