Neurobehavioral Anatomy, Third Edition
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: University Press of Colorado
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Preface to the Third Edition
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This book began as a series of Neurobehavior Seminars given to Neurology res-idents, students, and fellows at the University of Colorado School of Medicine in the late 1980s. Those talks were intended to be selective, practical, and brief, allowing listeners to go away with a reasonable summary of a complex field that they could readily apply in a number of academic settings. Noting at the ...
1: Behavior and the Brain
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Human behavior has an enduring appeal. Who among us has not reflected from time to time on how it is that a memory is formed, a sentence produced, or an emotion experienced? What is the origin of the thoughts and feelings that seem so distinctively to characterize the human species? Despite the enormous interest of this subject, however, our knowledge of human behavior is remarkably limited. The principle that...
2: Mental Status Evaluation
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A central goal of the clinical interaction between physician and patient is the gathering of information that will contribute to the patient’s proper evaluation and care. In the case of neurobehavioral disorders, deficits due to brain dysfunction can be recognized only after a thorough assessment of behavior has been completed. Many of the clinical data, of course, are elicited with a medical history, physical examination, elemental neurological...
3: Disorders of Arousal and Attention
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Disturbances of arousal and attention compose a heterogeneous and challenging group of neurobehavioral syndromes (Geschwind 1982; Mesulam 2000; Posner et al. 2007). Ranging in severity from coma after brainstem infarction to subtle acute confusional states related to drug intoxication, these disorders are not only common clinically but provide many insights into the brain’s capacity to enable uniquely human mental life. Moreover, they bear directly upon the fundamental question of the nature of consciousness, a perennial ...
4: Memory Disorders
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Memory is a critical cognitive domain that has long challenged students of behavior. The importance of memory in human existence is indisputable, since without an intact mnemonic system, past experience cannot be called upon to deal with present contingencies or to formulate future plans. Many different disciplines have contributed to the study of memory, encompassing organisms ...
5: Language Disorders
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Of all the higher functions, the capacity to communicate with language is perhaps the most obvious skill possessed by humankind. Language can be considered the verbal expression of symbolic thinking, and as such it not only endows human communication with an expansive richness of cognitive and emotional associations but also reflects the unique capacity of the human mind to interpret the world symbolically (Deacon 1997). Animals such as chimpanzees...
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Apraxia is an acquired disorder of skilled purposeful movement (Heilman and Rothi 2003; Greene 2005). As with aphasia and dysphasia, the term dyspraxia is sometimes used to denote less severe apraxia, but like aphasia, apraxia is far more commonly used for all degrees of severity. The theoretical importance of apraxia relates to the phenomenon of tool use, one of the key developments in human evolution that contributed to enhanced adaptation to the physical environment (Lewis 2006). In the clinical setting...
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Agnosia is fundamentally a disorder of recognition (Bauer and Demery 2003; Greene 2005). Like aphasia and apraxia, it may follow a focal cerebrovascular event but can also be seen in degenerative disease. A patient with agnosia fails to recognize an object even when primary sensory modalities have registered its features adequately. From the Greek meaning “absence of knowledge,” the term was first introduced by Sigmund Freud in his early monograph...
8: Right Hemisphere Syndromes
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Lesions of the right hemisphere produce some of the most intriguing yet problematic syndromes in behavioral neurology. Despite a substantial amount of information that has appeared recently, these disorders present special difficulties since they typically do not reveal themselves through the usual route of verbal mediation. Right hemisphere disorders, although they may often be disabling in real-world settings, are often difficult for the patient and family...
9: Temporal Lobe Syndromes
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It has been quipped that the Sylvian fissure, below which lies the temporal lobe and its various emotional functions, separates neurology from psychiatry. Although the position of this book is that any distinction between neurology and psychiatry will ultimately prove artificial (Chapter 1), it is true that a wide spectrum of emotional states, normal and otherwise, have been specifically linked with the temporal lobe and the limbic system to which it is intimately...
10: Frontal Lobe Syndromes
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The frontal lobes have long fascinated, and perplexed, students of human behavior (Filley 2009). One obvious reason for this is their impressive size, accounting for more than a third of the brain’s cortical surface (Damasio and Anderson 2003). Moreover, they are the most phylogenetically recent areas of the brain, and no other animal possesses frontal lobes of such size; accordingly, evolutionary...
11: Traumatic Brain Injury
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Injury to the brain is an obvious but still underemphasized source of neuro�behavioral disability. Although incidence and prevalence figures for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not known with certainty, it is estimated that, in the United States, approximately 1.5 million new cases occur each year (Arciniegas et al. 2005). Of these, some 235,000 require admission to a hospital (Arciniegas et al. 2005), and ...
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The first several chapters of this book were primarily devoted to neurobehavioral syndromes that can be related to focal disruption of cerebral areas concerned with the representation of cognition and emotion. Our review then led to traumatic brain injury (TBI), a problem that, because of its diverse manifestations, produces both focal and diffuse syndromes. To conclude this volume, ...
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The neurology clinic, with its abundance of unfortunate but instructive lesions of the brain, offers a continuously operating laboratory for the exploration of human behavior. The clinician’s first responsibility is the care of patients, but this imperative is rendered more attainable and more intelligent by attention to the ever fascinating relationships between brain and behavior. The treatment of patients in ...
Glossary of Neurobehavioral Terms
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Page Count: 304
Illustrations: 5 b&w photos, 26 line drawings, 17 tables
Publication Year: 2011