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Enduring Legacies

Ethnic Histories and Cultures of Colorado

Edited by Arturo J. Aldama, with Elisa Facio, Daryl Maeda, and Reiland Rabaka

Publication Year: 2011

"Enduring Legacies is a thought provoking volume of essays that contributes to redressing the regional imbalance by focusing on Colorado.. . . the essays showcase scholars' exciting research and suggest new approaches to Colorado's past."—Modupe Labode, Montana

Traditional accounts of Colorado's history often reflect an Anglocentric perspective that begins with the 1859 Pikes Peak Gold Rush and Colorado's establishment as a state in 1876. Enduring Legacies expands the study of Colorado's past and present by adopting a borderlands perspective that emphasizes the multiplicity of peoples who have inhabited this region. Addressing the dearth of scholarship on the varied communities within Colorado-a zone in which collisions structured by forces of race, nation, class, gender, and sexuality inevitably lead to the transformation of cultures and the emergence of new identities-this volume is the first to bring together comparative scholarship on historical and contemporary issues that span groups from Chicanas and Chicanos to African Americans to Asian Americans. This book will be relevant to students, academics, and general readers interested in Colorado history and ethnic studies.

Published by: University Press of Colorado

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. v-vii


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pp. ix

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pp. xi-xiii

Enduring Legacies: Ethnic Histories and Cultures of Colorado is a welcome addition to the University Press of Colorado’s Timberline series, which features meritorious books relating to Colorado. Since its inception in 1965, the University Press of Colorado...

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pp. xv

This book project began during Dr. Arturo J. Aldama’s final year as the director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race in America (CSERA), as a way to pay tribute to ethnic studies scholarship about the Colorado borderlands...

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Editors’ Introduction: Where Is the Color in the Colorado Borderlands?

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pp. 1-20

A rich mosaic of histories and cultures converges within the borderlands of Colorado. Situated on what was the northernmost boundary of Mexico prior to the U.S.-Mexico War of 1846–1848, the state of Colorado forms part of what many scholars call the...

Part I: Early Struggles

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pp. 21-118

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1: Pictorial Narratives of San Luis, Colorado: Legacy, Place, and Politics

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pp. 23-34

Traveling along State Highway 159 heading south to New Mexico, one passes through San Luis, locally acclaimed as the “Oldest Town in Colorado,” founded in 1851. At one of the main intersections in this small community is a mural—somewhat faded...

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2: Santiago and San Acacio, Foundational Legends of Conquest and Deliverance: New Mexico, 1599, and Colorado, 1853

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pp. 35-49

When Spanish Mexican colonists invoked the warrior saint Santiago at the 1599 siege of Acoma Pueblo, slaughter ensued.1 Two and a half centuries later, the Utes in the settlement of southern Colorado opposed their descendants. The miraculous intervention...

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3: Music of Colorado and New Mexico’s Río Grande

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pp. 51-68

Traditional Río Grande Chicano/Hispano1 music and dance in Colorado and New Mexico are influenced by many cultures of the world. Indigenous peoples, European settlers, and recent Mexican and Latino immigrants have all created a unique expression...

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4: Representations of Nineteenth-Century Chinese Prostitutes and Chinese Sexuality in the American West

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pp. 69-86

Chinese sex slaves flee cruel bondage to marry their childhood sweethearts and live happily ever after in Fairplay, Colorado.* That is the gist of “A Chinese Romance,” a news report in The Daily Denver Tribune, June 1, 1874, about the escape of a pair of sisters who had been forced...

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5: Religious Architecture in Colorado’s San Luis Valley

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pp. 87-99

This chapter is the culmination of field research work cataloguing religious church architecture in southern Colorado’s San Luis Valley. The building survey fieldwork reinforced the evidence of historical Hispanic roots in Colorado. What began as a cataloguing of small churches...

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6: Dearfield, Colorado: Black Farming Success in the Jim Crow Era

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pp. 101-118

The history of African Americans in the Dearfield, Colorado, area is intimately linked to early–nineteenth-century westward expeditions that cut through today’s Weld County, Colorado. Dearfield was one of approximately fifteen all–Black communities...

Part II: Pre-1960s Colorado

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pp. 119-236

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7: Racism, Resistance, and Repression: The Creation of Denver Gangs, 1924–1950

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pp. 121-138

This chapter provides a historical overview of Mexican American gangs and gang enforcement in Denver, Colorado. The contemporary fascination with gangs in Denver has continued to generate media and public appeal, but little is reported about their origination. Looking...

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8: The Influence of Marcus Mosiah and Amy Jacques Garvey: On the Rise of Garveyism in Colorado

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pp. 139-158

During the second decade of the twentieth century, the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL)1 experienced extraordinary growth in its promotion of chartered chapters and divisions in local communities...

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9: “A Quiet Campaign of Education”: Equal Rights at the University of Colorado, 1930–1941

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pp. 159-174

Immediately prior to World War II, the University of Colorado (CU) began a campaign against racial, ethnic, and religious discrimination that predated the normally cited beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. This movement connected with minority students on campus...

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10: Journey to Boulder: The Japanese American Instructors at the Navy Japanese Language School (1942–1946)

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pp. 175-193

In April 1942, Joe Sano wrote a letter to his wife, Miya, who was being held at Tanforan Assembly Center in San Francisco with his elderly mother. Like 120,000 other Japanese Americans, the Sanos had been forcibly evicted from their home by Executive Order 9066 and imprisoned...

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11: "So They Say”: Lieutenant Earl W. Mann’s World War II Colorado Statesman Columns

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pp. 195-218

This chapter is about race, politics, and war in Colorado. Its principal source material is the series of columns written by Earl W. Mann, the third African American to serve in the Colorado State Legislature, following his election to that body in the fall...

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12: Latina Education and Life in Rural Southern Colorado, 1920–1945

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pp. 219-236

This chapter explores how women of mestiza ancestry experienced the education system in Huerfano County, Colorado, between the years 1920 and 1945.1 In addition to gaining an understanding of education, other goals of the study were to document...

Part III: Contemporary Issues

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13: Recruitment, Rejection, and Reaction: Colorado Chicanos in the Twentieth Century

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pp. 239-255

The twentieth century has often been called the American century, and U.S. dominance and prominence undoubtedly grew during that century. The industrial transformation of the United States as it began to displace Native Americans from their lands...

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14: "Ay Que Lindo es Colorado”: Chicana Musical Performance from the Colorado Borderlands

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pp. 257-272

It is a busy Friday night at Señor Manuel’s Mexican restaurant in Colorado Springs. The delicious smells, spicy dishes, and colorful ambiente are served along with the musical sounds of a well-known Chicana solo singer performing popular Mexican...

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15: When Geronimo Was Asked Who He Was, He Replied, I am an Apache

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pp. 273-289

I was born in Trinidad, Colorado, in the 1950s, a decade when American society’s zealous homogeneous policies began to take hold all over the country. These policies took place within the context of the greatest prosperity Americans had enjoyed...

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16: Institutionalizing Curanderismo in Colorado’s Community Mental Health System

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pp. 291-308

This chapter chronicles the accounts of three individuals involved in the process of institutionalizing curanderismo in Colorado’s community mental health system. Curanderismo is “a holistic approach to physical, psychosocial, and spiritual conditions..

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17: Finding Courage: The Story of the Struggle to Retire the Adams State “Indian”

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pp. 309-325

This is a story about the end of the “Indian” mascot at Adams State College (ASC) in Alamosa, Colorado, and what it reveals about race, materiality, and coalition politics. It is a story of struggle, pain, loss, and, finally, victory. It is a story about a small college...

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18: Pedagogical Practices of Liberation in Abelardo “Lalo” Delgado’s Movement Poetry

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pp. 327-345

This study draws on the work of Brazilian philosopher Paulo Freire as a conceptual framework for Chicano Movement Poetry in Colorado, particularly that of Abelardo Barrientos Delgado, affectionately known to many as “Lalo.” A principal objective...

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19: (Re)constructing Chicana Movimiento Narratives at CU Boulder, 1968–1974

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pp. 347-363

The project described in this chapter began during the 2000 spring semester in a class titled Chicana Feminist Thought. As a teacher, I was primarily concerned with deploying pedagogical practices and interrogating epistemological perspectives...

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20: Running the Gauntlet: Francisco “Kiko” Martínez and the Colorado Martyrs

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pp. 365-378

Francisco “Kiko” Eugenio Martínez, armed with his knowledge of the legal system and of the complex social, political, and economic conditions of Chicano and Mexicano communities, committed his professional and personal life to a struggle for justice for the community...

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21: Toward a Critical Theory of the African American West

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pp. 379-400

When one thinks of Colorado, African Americans and other folks of African descent are usually not the first cultural group to come to mind. African Americans constitute less than 5 percent of Colorado’s total population and only about 10 percent of the population...


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pp. 401-405


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pp. 407-421

E-ISBN-13: 9781607320517
E-ISBN-10: 1607320517
Print-ISBN-13: 9781607320500
Print-ISBN-10: 1607320509

Page Count: 420
Illustrations: 11
Publication Year: 2011