Leadership in the Crucible
The Korean War Battles of Twin Tunnels and Chipyong-ni
Publication Year: 2003
Published by: Texas A&M University Press
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A colored print posted in the adjutant’s office of the artillery battalion where I began my military service as a lieutenant in the 82d Airborne Division was my first contact with the 23d Infantry Regiment and the battle of Chipyong-ni. It was one in a series of illustrations of famous battles...
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The phenomenon of leadership—leaders and their followers together accomplishing given tasks—is the focus of this work. As a way to study this phenomenon, it examines in some detail the actions of the 23d Infantry Regimental Combat Team and the French United Nations Infantry Battalion during...
Chapter 1 The 23d Infantry Regiment and Col. Paul Freeman
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In the summer of 1950, the soldiers of the 23d Infantry Regiment had no inkling of the destiny that awaited them in the Korean War. The regiment would earn two Presidential Unit Citations, the U.S. Army’s highest award for achievement...
Chapter 2 Baptism by Fire on the Naktong River Line
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The 23d Infantry Regiment arrived in Korea to find itself in a war unlike any the U.S. Army had ever fought, in a place it had never expected to fight. Neither the American people nor their soldiers had ever envisioned an American army...
Chapter 3 Disaster in the North
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By 1 November, the 23d Regiment was stationed near Haeju, a deep-water port on the coast of North Korea southwest of Pyongyang. Soldiers and even their commander, Col. Paul Freeman, thought that the 2d Division, including...
Chapter 4 The French Battalion and Lt. Col. Ralph Monclar
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On 24 July 1950, Gen. Douglas MacArthur established the United Nations Command in Tokyo. The UN Security Council resolution calling for an end to hostilities and withdrawal of North Korean troops behind the 38th Parallel also pledged member nations to assist in carrying out the resolution. As the...
Chapter 5 Matthew Ridgway and a New War
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When Lt. Gen. Walton Walker was killed in a vehicle accident just before Christmas, 1950, Lt. Gen. Matthew Bunker Ridgway flew to Korea to take command. On the way to the Eighth Army in Korea, he stopped in Tokyo to be briefed by General MacArthur. While there, he asked...
Chapter 6 Wonju and Patrols to Twin Tunnels
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By January, 1951, three UN corps were responsible for roughly the western half of the Korean peninsula. From west to east, I Corps was on the left; IX Corps next, south of Seoul; and X Corps was on the right. Republic of Korea units and the U.S. Marine Corps were responsible for the mountainous eastern...
Chapter 7 The Battle of Twin Tunnels
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On the morning of 30 January 1951, Lieutenant Colonel Edwards reported to the regimental headquarters that Captain Tyrrell estimated there were two enemy companies on Hill 453. Receiving this information, Lt. Gen. Ned Almond, the corps commander, ordered the regiment to take...
Chapter 8 Prelude to Chipyong-ni
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The battle of Twin Tunnels gave the Americans and their French comrades confidence in their ability to absorb anything their foes could muster against them. The battle had been a close call in which the defenders were saved by airpower at the last moment before disaster struck. Nonetheless, the UN forces...
Chapter 9 Isolated and Encircledat Chipyong-ni
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Since his assumption of command in late December, 1950, the Eighth Army commander, Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridgway, had wanted to go on the offensive against the North Korean Peoples Army and its ally, the Chinese Communist Forces. At Wonju in...
Chapter 10 Fighting and Surviving on the Second Day
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The soldiers of the 23d Infantry Regiment and its French Battalion went into the second night of their siege with a mixture of confidence and foreboding. The word of Freeman’s injury had rippled through the command on the rumor network at the same time it was being relayed down the official chain of...
Chapter 11 Task Force Crombez Runs the Gauntlet
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When Task Force Crombez, the armor-heavy rescue column from the 5th Cavalry Regiment, entered Chipyong-ni, everyone inside the perimeter and the chain of command up to Ridgway himself breathed a sigh of relief. A United Nations force had won its first victory over the....
Chapter 12 Aftermath and Reflections
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The arrival of Task Force Crombez brought the battle of Chipyongni to a dramatic end late in the afternoon on 15 February 1951, although the leaders could not be sure of that at the time. Ammunition stocks were critically low throughout the 23d RCT, and the task...
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Suggestions for Further Reading
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Page Count: 272
Illustrations: 21 b&w photos., 4 maps.
Publication Year: 2003