From Ethnic Conflict to Stillborn Reform
The Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia
Publication Year: 2005
Published by: Texas A&M University Press
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PART I: Introduction
CHAPTER 1. Democratization and Market Reform in War-Torn Post-Communist States
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The reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and the associated collapse of the Soviet Union’s Eastern European satellite regimes removed the external threat that had held the Yugoslav state together after the death of Josip Broz Tito, the founder of the post–World War II communist regime. What remained was a decentralized state, in which the forces favoring secession and ...
CHAPTER 2. Theory, Statistical Tests, and Literature Review
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... emphasizing national renewal (“frustrated national ideals”). Second, the main expected effects of war are discussed in this context of transition. The main factors are distraction, militarization of the state, military defeat, and economic isolation. There is also an extended discussion of factors expected to contribute to military defeat or victory. Next, the main hypotheses are restated and ...
PART II: The Former Soviet Union
CHAPTER 3. Azerbaijan
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... August, 1991, collapse. Karabakh Armenian forces, backed by aid and volunteers from Armenia, scored a series of decisive victories. By mid-1992, all of Karabakh, along with other Azerbaijani territory linking Karabakh to Armenia, was in Armenian hands. In 1993, Karabakh Armenian forces seized additional blocs of Azerbaijan east and south of Karabakh. The May, 1994, ceasefire left these huge Armenian gains intact. ...
CHAPTER 4. Armenia
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... to stop the snowballing Armenian separatist movement. With the August, 1991, collapse of Soviet power, full-scale war erupted. With support from Armenia, Karabakh Armenian forces won a dramatic military victory. By the time a ceasefire was signed in May, 1994, Karabakh Armenian forces held not only all of Nagorno-Karabakh (henceforth “Karabakh”), but also large additional swathes ...
CHAPTER 5. Georgia
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Abkhaz forces in particular won a total victory, and Georgia was forced to make humiliating concessions to Russia to avoid a total collapse of internal order. These conflicts and defeats seriously threatened Georgia’s nascent democracy and halted market-reform efforts. However, since the conflicts ended, democracy and market reform have made significant, if still shaky, comebacks. ...
CHAPTER 6. Moldova
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... region east of the Dniester River, and in Gagauz Turkish regions in the South. From late 1990 there were frequent clashes between Russian and Moldovan paramilitaries or armed bands in Transnistria, and between Gagauz and Moldovan fighters in the South. At the time of the August, 1991, coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev, Russian elites seized local administrative and police ...
CHAPTER 7. Tajikistan
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... guerrilla tactics from their refuges in the mountains and across the Afghan frontier. However, internal divisions among the communist-era elites, with Uzbekistan siding with the losing faction, provided an opening for an opposition military recovery in 1996 and 1997. This was the basis for the peace agreement signed in June, 1997, in which the incumbent government made important ...
PART III: The Former Yugoslavia
CHAPTER 8. Croatia
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Units of the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA) and paramilitaries from Serbia proper supported local Serb forces. A cease-fire in January, 1992, left about one-third of Croatian territory under Serb control. There were scattered engagements in subsequent years. Croatia also intervened in the fighting in neighboring Bosnia-Herzegovina, sometimes supporting the Bosnian Croats against ...
CHAPTER 9. Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Muslims, Croats, and Serbs
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... political independence, Bosnian Serb and Serbia-based paramilitaries armed by the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA) launched military operations across Bosnia to seize territory. Within a few months, Serb forces, swelled by approximately half the large JNA force hitherto based in Bosnia, controlled about two-thirds of Bosnian territory. In April, 1993, fighting erupted between Croat and Muslim ...
CHAPTER 10. Serbia
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... one-third of Croatia’s territory. From April, 1992, a similar war soon gave Bosnian Serb forces control of two-thirds of Bosnian territory. In later stages of these wars, Croatian and Bosnian Serb forces were left to fight alone— although Serbia continued to support them with money and arms. In late 1995, Croatian, Bosnian Croat, and Bosnian Muslim forces won rapid and decisive ...
PART IV: Conclusions
CHAPTER 11. War and the Contradictions of Reform Nationalism
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The main hypotheses on the consequences of war—that distraction, militarization and defeat, and postwar economic isolation cumulatively undermine democratization and market reform—are consistently confirmed. In addition, it is argued that ethnic conflicts should be explained not just in terms of regime types and capabilities, but also in terms of what issues and objectives are involved. International intervention occurs ...
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Page Count: 296
Illustrations: 8 maps. 6 tables. 7 figs.
Publication Year: 2005