Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota
Volume I, Biodiversity
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: Texas A&M University Press
List of Plates
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Foreword: 50- Year Update of Bulletin 89
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Just over 50 years ago, a group of prominent marine scientists of their day agreed to begin work on a digest of existing knowledge on the Gulf of Mexico. The eff ort was proposed by Lionel A. Walford of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Waldo L. Schmitt of the U.S. National Museum of Natural History, during a meeting...
1. An Introduction to Gulf of Mexico Biodiversity Assessment
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Assessment of natural resources is fundamental to managing their sustainable use and conservation, especially against a backdrop of ongoing global environmental change. Large- scale, species- level inventories are particularly important for understanding and managing biodiversity, but they are also extraordinarily difficult...
2. Prokaryotic Microbes (Archaea and Bacteria, Excluding Cyanobacteria) of theGulf of Mexico
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More than 50 years have passed since the publication of the ZoBell compendium on the microbiology of the Gulf of Mexico (ZoBell 1954). Four major technological revolutions have taken place in microbiology since then, which have completely changed our perception of how we treat microbial systematics and diversity...
3. Benthic Cyanoprokaryota (Cyanobacteria) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The Cyanoprokaryota (Cyanophyceae, Cyanobacteria) is a very old group of organisms with the same cellular characteristics as eubacteria and, in particular, as Gramnegative bacteria. They are unique among the prokaryotes in carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis. Furthermore, they diff er from the rest of the bacteria...
4. Ciliated Protists (Ciliophora) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The ciliates represent a ubiquitous group of protists with representatives inhabiting most marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats (Corliss 1979). Their small size, rapid reproductive rate, and ability to form desiccation- resistant resting stages ensure easy dispersal...
5. Free-Living, Saprobic, Filamentous Fungi of the Gulf of Mexico
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The definition of marine fungi is rather imprecise and is based on habitat. Obligate marine fungi include species able to grow and sporulate exclusively in the marine or estuarine environment; facultative marine species may grow in marine, freshwater, or terrestrial habitats, but range into marine environments. The obligate marine fungi are considered by many workers to be an ecologically...
6. Foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico
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Shelled protists of the Class Foraminifera (Phylum Granuloreticulosa) living in the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) have been studied since the 1890s (see Cushman 1918), but when Fred Phleger and Frances Parker wrote their chapter for Fisheries Bulletin 89 (Phleger and Parker 1954), much of the information came from their own extensive work. Their table of benthic taxa...
7. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico
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In 1954, H. W. Graham stated, "Despite the importance of these organisms, the Gulf of Mexico is almost a terra incognita in respect to our knowledge of the dinofl agellate plankton." In the same article, he gave a historic presentation on what dinofl agellate studies had been conducted, basic ecological considerations, and mentioned some common and oceanic species...
8. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The Bacillariophyta (Diatoms) represent a very large group of unicellular algae present in marine, freshwater, terrestrial, and aerial ecosystems. Although long studied in fossil and living environs, their diversity is still not completely known. Small- subunit ribosomal RNA (ssRNA) sequence data support the premise that the Bacillariophyta are a monophyletic group within...
9. Seaweeds of the Gulf of Mexico
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The marine macroalgae, or seaweeds, are a heterogenous group historically lumped together as "Protists," an assemblage of taxa whose members typically lack true roots, shoots, leaves, seeds, or water- conducting tissues. They comprise the multicellular green algae (Chlorophyta), red algae (Rhodophyta), and brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Until very recently, the relationship among the Algae and other Protists remained inconclusive and oft en contradictory (Adl et al. 2005)...
10 Plants (Embryophyta) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Included in this summary are those species of nonvascular and vascular plants (Divisions: Bryophyta, Polypodiophyta, Pinophyta, Magnoliophyta) that grow either directly in the Gulf of Mexico or occur in sites that are largely infl uenced by the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As designated, we have included species associated with marine, brackish, and tidal freshwater habitats...
11. Sponges (Porifera) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Sponges (Porifera) are diverse and quantitatively important members of the sessile benthos. They populate solid substrata ranging from reefs, mangrove stilt roots, and seaweed, to deep- sea rock outcrops and artificial structures- such as oil- production platforms-and their biomass may exceed that of any other benthic organisms, including reef- building corals and octocorals. As filter feeders, they pump large quantities of seawater...
12. Cnidaria: Introduction
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Cnidarians are ubiquitous in the marine environment, occurring from the Arctic to Antarctic and from the intertidal to 10,710 m, the depth record held by the hadal tubeforming sea anemone...
13. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Members of the subclass Octocorallia, sometimes referred to as the subclass Alcyonaria, are sedentary, colonial, exclusively polypoid Anthozoa, each with feeding polyps bearing 8 unpaired, pinnate tentacles and 8 gastric mesenteries. All species have numerous, usually microscopic, calcareous (calcitic) skeletal elements called sclerites...
14. Scleractinia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The order Scleractinia, also known as the Madreporaria, consists of sedentary, colonial or solitary, exclusively polypoid hexacorallian Anthozoa, the polyps of which are supported by an external, aragonitic, calcium carbonate skeleton, called the corallum...
15. Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, and Zoanthidea (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Sea anemones, in the strict sense, constitute the Actiniaria, an order of subclass Hexacorallia (= Zoantharia) of cnidarian class Anthozoa. Animals belonging to some of the other orders of Hexacorallia may also be referred to ...
16. Antipatharia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Antipatharians (black corals) are colonial anthozoans characterized by small polyps and a horny, noncalcareous skeletal axis. The polyps possess 6 simple (unbranched) tentacles and have a varying number of internal mesenteries (6, 10, or 12)...
17. Ceriantharia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Cerianthids, or tube anemones, are solitary anemone- like anthozoans. They have a rather uniform appearance, with a long, muscular column, flattened at the oral end and tapering to the aboral end. At the oral disk there are 2 crowns of numerous simple tentacles: shorter ones surround the mouth, and longer ones are arrayed at the margin. Internally, cerianthids have an actinopharynx...
18. Medusozoans (Cnidaria: Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, and Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The subphylum Medusozoa is a group of solitary radiate metazoans. Their anatomical and physiological simplicity, their variety of reproductive strategies, and their capacity to produce nematocysts make them highly successful. Medusozoans are found in all of the oceans, at all latitudes and all depths...
19. Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Hydrozoans are an important component of both the benthos and the plankton in all oceans. Their ranges extend from polar to tropical waters, and from the intertidal zone to ocean trenches. Some penetrate into estuaries, but only a small percentage of known species occur...
20. Siphonophorae (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The siphonophorae are a subclass of the class Hydrozoa, phylum Cnidaria. They are highly polymorphic and complex animals, and their zooids, both medusoid and polypoid, have become specialized to carry out various functions, such as swimming, feeding, reproduction, and protection. Although phylogenetically they originated as colonies, structurally, physiologically...
21. Ctenophora of the Gulf of Mexico
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Ctenophores are gelatinous predators found throughout the world's oceans, where they inhabit the shallowest coastal zone to the abyss, from the tropics to the poles. Ctenophores are diploblasts located near the triploblast boundary (Harbison 1985, Martindale and Henry 1998) that display considerable morphological...
22. Turbellarians (Acoelomorpha and Free-Living Platyhelminthes) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Previously considered to be a class of the Platyhelminthes, the "Turbellaria" is a paraphyletic group of flatworms that includes all members of the Phylum Acoelomorpha (Acoela and Nemertodermatida) and some members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (excluding the exclusively parasitic members of the Rhabditophora...
23. Trematoda (Platyhelminthes) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The platyhelminth class Trematoda, consisting of the subclasses Aspidogastrea and Digenea, contains individuals referred to as digeneans, trematodes, or flukes. Aspidogastreans, not digeneans in the strict sense, number about 80 species in total (Rohde 2005), but adults in the Gulf of Mexico of 4 species have been reported from teleost and chondrichthyan fishes (Hendrix and Overstreet 1977) and one from a turtle...
24. Cestoda (Platyhelminthes) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Cestodes (tapeworms) are obligate, internal parasites. In general, as adults they inhabit the digestive system of their vertebrate hosts; few have been reported from other sites. The Eucestoda (true tapeworms) comprise 12 orders (Khalil, Jones, and Bray 1994, Caira, Mega, and Ruhnke 2005). Recognized separately are the Cestodaria, 2 orders of monozoic (unproglottized) tapeworms...
25. Dicyemida of the Gulf of Mexico, with Comments on the Orthonectida
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The phylum Dicyemida, also referred to as Rhombozoa, consists entirely of parasites, even though no harm to their hosts has been quantified. Consequently, they also could be considered symbionts in the wide sense. Few people are aware of the group because its members are internal...
26. Gnathostomulida of the Gulf of Mexico
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Gnathostomulida is a phylum of microscopic, interstitial marine worms. Its members are characterized by a simple epithelium with monociliated cells, preoral sensory cilia, and a ventral mouth opening that leads to a blind gut, through a muscular pharynx with a complex jaw apparatus. All gnathostomulids are hermaphrodites...
27. Rotifera of the Gulf of Mexico
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Rotifera is a phylum of microscopic metazoans, characterized by the presence of cephalic ciliary bands, called the corona or wheel organ, and a complex pharyngeal apparatus, referred to as the mastax. The general appearance of a rotifer varies greatly, but typically the body can be divided into a head, a trunk, and a foot region...
28. Acanthocephala of the Gulf of Mexico
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Acanthocephalans (phylum Acanthocephala Rudolphi, 1814) are parasitic worms with bilateral symmetry, are dioecious, and lack a digestive apparatus and gas-exchange organs. This group's characteristic organ is a proboscis armed with hooks that allows it to fix to its host's intestinal wall...
29. Nemertea of the Gulf of Mexico
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Twenty- five named species of nemerteans and at least another 15 undescribed species are known from the Gulf of Mexico (GMx). Worldwide, there are about 1100 validly named species of nemerteans, with the vast majority known from littoral and near- shore marine habitats, while about another 100 are deep- sea pelagic forms, and a handful are terrestrial and freshwater...
30. Mollusca: Introduction
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The phylum Mollusca is among the most diverse, second only to the Arthropoda, with an estimated 93,000 described living species and some 70,000 known fossils (Brusca and Brusca 2003)...
31. Aplacophora (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Aplacophoran species are worm- or tubelike, from 1 mm to 300 mm in length, without a shell but covered by a coat of adpressed or upright aragonite sclerites. Each species has a characteristic body shape and sclerite morphology (see Treece 1979)...
32. Polyplacophora (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Members of the class Polyplacophora, commonly called chitons, comprise a relatively uniform group of species that live in marine environments from the tropics to polar regions and from intertidal zones to deep- sea trenches. The approximately 850 living species (Slieker 2000) are classified in about 14 families (Sirenko 1993, Kaas and Van Belle 1998, Schwabe and Wanninger 2006)...
33. Gastropoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Gastropoda is the most species- rich molluscan class, inhabiting a vast array of habitats in the ocean, freshwater, and on land. Familiar representatives include snails, conchs, whelks, abalones, limpets, and slugs. They have diverse feeding mechanisms, including herbivory, detritivory, generalized grazing, suspension feeding, scavenging, endo- and ectoparasitism, and carnivory. Most species are benthic, but a number are entirely pelagic...
34. Cephalopoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The cephalopods of the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) have not been studied comprehensively since Voss' (1956) monograph. Several cephalopod reports have included this region in broader studies (e.g., Vecchione 2002) or have examined distribution based on limited geographic area (e.g., Nesis 1975, Passarella and Hopkins 1991)...
35. Bivalvia (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The molluscan class Bivalvia includes mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams. Named for the characteristic twoshelled valves that enclose soft parts of the animal, bivalves are an important part of the benthic infauna and epifauna of the Gulf of Mexico...
36. Scaphopoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The molluscan class Scaphopoda, commonly called tusk or tooth shells, consists of a relatively poorly known group of infaunal predators. Scaphopods are rarely found in estuaries and most inhabit sands...
37. Polychaeta (Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The phylum Annelida, segmented worms, includes species from all sorts of environments. Apart from most of the leeches, the annelids have bristles, chaetae, usually arranged so that there are two or four bundles of bristles per segment...
38. Marine Leeches (Hirudinida) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Marine leeches are all parasitic blood feeders, living either on sea turtles (family Ozobranchidae) or fishes (family Piscicolidae). Depending on the species, marine leeches may be very host specific, occurring on only a single species of fi sh, or they may...
39. Vestimentifera and Pogonophora (Annelida) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The Vestimentifera and the Pogonophora have complex taxonomic histories, reviewed in Rouse (2001a). However, the roughly 150 species are clearly members of the phylum Annelida and jointly form the family Siboglinidae (Rouse 2001a, b)...
40. Echiura of the Gulf of Mexico
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The phylum Echiura includes about 150 species of benthic marine protostomes. The taxonomic position of the group has varied, but for most of the time since the 1940s they have held phylum status. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this assumption...
41. Sipuncula of the Gulf of Mexico
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Marine worms of the phylum Sipuncula are found in all of the worldâs oceans from intertidal waters to abyssal depths. Varying in size from approximately 2 mm to 400 mm, sipunculans occupy a variety of habitats. Some species burrow into sandy or muddy sediments...
42. Tardigrada of the Gulf of Mexico
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Tardigrades are microscopic invertebrates that belong to the phylum Tardigrada (proposed by Ramazzotti in 1962). First described by Goeze in 1773 and commonly recognized as "Water Bears" (Wassar Bär) by observers...
43. Pycnogonida and Xiphosura (Cheliceriformes) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Except for arachnids occurring as parasites or as freeliving terrestrial forms in coastal wetlands, marine cheliceriform arthropods in the Gulf of Mexico are rather few. They include poorly known halicarcid mites (marine Acari, not treated here), a single but conspicuous...
44. Cephalocarida and Mystacocarida (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Cephalocarid and mystacocarid crustaceans are not closely related. Both groups contain relatively few species, all of which are very small and somewhat vermiform, and they are treated together here only for that reason...
45. Cirripedia (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The Cirripedia is the only group of sessile crustaceans. Diverse and conspicuous, some have evolved as parasitic forms and are unrecognizable as crustaceans except for their characteristic naupliar and cyprid...
46. Branchiura (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The subclass Branchiura contains 4 valid genera: Argulus, Chonopeltis, Dipteropeltis, and Dolops, within a single family, the Argulidae; however, subfamilies within the Argulidae and the family Dipteropeltidae also have been proposed (Yamaguti 1963)...
47. Free-Living Copepoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Copepods are a widely distributed and abundant group of microcrustaceans. They show an amazing diversity of forms, adapted to diff erent kinds of environments. The group contains free- living and associated forms...
48. Myodocopan Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The superorder Myodocopa in the class Ostracoda contains 2 orders: 1, Myodocopida, containing the suborder Myodocopina; and 2, Halocyprida, containing the suborders Halocypridina and Cladocopina. Of the several reports of Cladocopina in the Gulf of Mexico...
49. Podocopan Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The fi rst ostracodans from the Gulf of Mexico were described by Brady (1870) from sediment collected near Veracruz and Carmen, Mexico. These included 3 new species plus 5 previously described from the Bahamas, and 7 of the 8 names remain valid today...
50. Leptostraca (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Leptostracans are small crustaceans (usually 5 to 15 mm total length) that are broadly distributed in the marine environment. They can occur in staggering numbers and are likely of great ecological importance in some areas (e.g., see Vetter 1994, Gerken 1995)...
51. Stomatopoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The order Stomatopoda (mantis shrimps) is represented by an ecologically and behaviorally diverse group of actively predatory crustaceans that nevertheless exhibit only moderate morphological diversity compared to the decapods...
52. Lophogastrida (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The order Lophogastrida is a relatively small group of malacostracan crustaceans, consisting of about 55 pelagic and bottom- associated deepwater species, formerly contained as a suborder within the Mysidacea...
53. Mysida (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The order Mysida contains shrimplike malacostracan crustaceans, which were formerly contained within Mysidacea with the Lophogastrida. Members of the Mysida are oft en referred to as "opossum shrimps" because the eggs and developing embryos are carried by females in a ventral brood pouch or marsupium formed...
54. Amphipoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The order Amphipoda is the largest and most diverse of the peracarid orders. Its members occur worldwide in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments and in virtually all habitats, including woodlands, lakes, streams, subterranean waters, beaches, mangrove swamps, salt marshes, grassbeds, rocky substrates...
55. Isopoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Isopod crustaceans comprise a relatively speciose and abundant group of invertebrates found in diverse habitats and depths throughout the world. Described species, including the terrestrial forms, now number over 10,000 (see the World List of Isopods at www.nmnh.si.edu /iz/isopod)...
56. Tanaidacea (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The crustacean order Tanaidacea was not treated in Gulf of Mexico, Its Origin, Waters, and Marine Life (edited by Galtsoff 1954). At the time of that publication, only a single tanaidacean...
57. Cumacea (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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The malacostracan crustacean order Cumacea was not treated in Galtsoff 's (1954) The Gulf of Mexico: Its Origin, Waters, and Marine Life. The present synopsis deals with the species of cumaceans that are currently known or verifi ably reported from the Gulf of Mexico (GMx)....
58. Euphausiacea (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Euphausiids are exclusively marine holoplanktic crustaceans; they are distributed in all latitudes and from the surface layers to the great oceanic depths. They are generically known as "krill," a term originally used in connection with the euphausiids of the cold waters...
59. Decapoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico, with Comments on the Amphionidacea
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The decapod crustaceans are primarily marine in terms of abundance and diversity, although they include a variety of well- known freshwater and even some semiterrestrial forms. Some species move between marine and freshwater environments, and large populations thrive...
60. Gastrotricha of the Gulf of Mexico
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Gastrotrichs are aquatic, strap- shaped to tenpin- shaped worms, 0.05-3.5 mm long. The body is fl at ventrally and arched dorsally and surrounded by a multilayered, translucent cuticle that covers the entire body, including the ventral locomotory cilia...
61. Free-Living Marine Nematoda of the Gulf of Mexico
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Nematodes, or threadworms, are triploblastic, pseudocoelomate, round in cross- section, elongate, and tapered to some degree at both ends. Whereas the body is fundamentally straight or slightly curved in most nematodes, it has an epsilon- or sigmoid- shape in members of Draconematidae and Epsilonematidae...
62. Priapulida of the Gulf of Mexico
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Priapulids are marine, free- living, benthic worms with an eversible proboscis; species vary in size from less than 1 mm to greater than 40 cm in length (Shirley and Storch 1999). Their range extends from the ocean trenches to intertidal beaches, and from the polar...
63. Loricifera of the Gulf of Mexico
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The Loricifera are one of the more recently described and least studied of the meiofaunal phyla (Kristensen 1983, Kristensen, Heiner, and Higgins 2007)...
64. Kinorhyncha of the Gulf of Mexico
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Kinorhynchs are microscopic, marine, free- living, segmented invertebrates with a head that bears a retractable, oral cone ringed by spines; most species are less than 1 mm in length (Kristensen and Higgins 1991)...
65. Phoronida of the Gulf of Mexico
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The Phoronida comprises 2 genera and at least 10 recognized species (Emig 1982), the majority of which exhibit a distinctive larval form known as the actinotroch (Zimmer 1991)...
66. Brachiopoda of the Gulf of Mexico
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Brachiopods, or "lamp shells," are generally considered rare in extant marine faunas, but exhibit a rich and diverse fossil history (Williams and Rowell 1965). There are roughly 350 living species of brachiopods worldwide...
67. Entoprocta of the Gulf of Mexico
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Entoprocts (sometimes called kamptozoans) are predominantly marine (one species is limnic), sessile or colonial, benthic animals; their range extends from shallow water to several hundred meters, but the group is generally poorly studied...
68. Bryozoans (Ectoprocta) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Bryozoans (phylum Bryozoa) are colonial invertebrate animals found in almost all marine and freshwater habitats. In subtidal marine habitats, estuaries, rocky intertidal, and fouling communities they are sometimes one of the dominant invertebrate groups...
69. Planktonic Chaetognatha of the Gulf of Mexico
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Chaetognaths are among the most abundant constituents of the marine zooplankton community. They represent around 10% of both the zooplankton numerical abundance and biomass in the world oceans (Bone, Kapp, and Pierrot- Bults 1991)...
70. Hemichordata of the Gulf of Mexico
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The hemichordates are so named because they have 3 characters that are otherwise thought to be chordate synapomorphies- gill slits, a dorsal nerve cord, and a diverticulum of the foregut that projects into the protocoelom and resembles a truncated notochord...
71. Echinodermata of the Gulf of Mexico
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The sea stars and their relatives, comprising the phylum Echinodermata, are universal symbols of the ocean realm. They are strictly marine, living in all seas and at all depths; very few species are capable of tolerating the reduced salinity of estuarine waters...
72. Cephalochordata of the Gulf of Mexico
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Members of the subphylum Cephalochordata are entirely marine and possess key chordate characters including gill slits, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, an endostyle, and a notochord that extends to the anterior tip of the body, hence the phylum name...
74. Appendicularia (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Appendicularians are exclusively marine holoplanktonic urochordates. They are distinguished from other tunicates by the persistence of a notochord in the adult stage. They have a body formed by a trunk and a characteristic tail, which is generally several times longer...
73. Tunicata (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Tunicates, also called urochordates, are invertebrates that constitute a subphylum of the phylum Chordata. They exhibit a notochord (similar to our backbone) during their larval stage that shrinks to a simple ganglion during their adult stage in most tunicates...
75. Fishes (Vertebrata: Pisces) of the Gulf of Mexico
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When Luis R. Rivas summarized the knowledge of fishes of the Gulf of Mexico in the first edition of The Gulf of Mexico, Its Origin, Waters, and Marine Life, there was little available knowledge of the fish fauna. The earliest surveys of fishes of the Gulf were land based...
76. Reptiles (Vertebrata: Reptilia) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Six families of reptiles have species living in the Gulf of Mexico (GMx). The 2 families of sea turtles, 5 species, are truly marine animals and spend their entire lives, with the exception of egg laying, in marine water, oft en distant from shore. Two emydid turtles and 2 snakes...
77. Birds (Vertebrata: Aves) of the Gulf of Mexico
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As already pointed out by Lowery and Newman (1954), birds are a unique group within those reviewed in this work, for their high mobility and their characteristic of not living strictly in marine waters, but depending upon them for food and, sometimes, for rest...
78. Mammals (Vertebrata: Mammalia) of the Gulf of Mexico
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Because of their large body size and abundance, marine mammals are thought to have a major influence on the structure and function of marine communities (Bowen 1997)...
79. Population Genetics and Biogeography of the Gulf of Mexico
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Marine biogeography and population genetics have undergone fundamental changes since the publication of "Bulletin 89." In marine biogeography the most important change was the eventual acceptance of plate tectonics as a mechanism that shapes global biogeographic...
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Page Count: 1312
Illustrations: 225 color illus. 248 line art.
Publication Year: 2009
Volume Title: Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota