The New Chicago: A Social and Cultural Analysis
Publication Year: 2006
Published by: Temple University Press
Title Page, Copyright Page
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THIS BOOK is unusual on several counts. Its most persistent and unnerving characteristic was expressed by our university’s Academic Vice-President when the book editors met with him to ask for extraordinary support to bring the project to life. “It’s too ambitious” was the frank appraisal of our historian-trained administrator. Our college Dean concurred, but in the wake of our presentations to each, they gave us their full and unwavering support for the duration of the project....
Part I: Introduction
1. An Overview and Point of View
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IT WAS FIRST said back in the 1880s: “Chicago is the most American of cities and to know America, you must understand Chicago”1 (Miller 1997, 17; d’Eramo 2002, 8). The claim holds up to this day for two complementary reasons—one mythic and one real. Mythically, the Midwest is America’s “heartland”—the region that speaks to the imagined core of our national identity: what the country stands for and how it wishes to be defined. Chicago is our heartland’s capital. The city’s unique status...
Part II: Converging Forces
2. Globalization and the Remaking of Chicago
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THIS CHAPTER EXPLORES the fundamental transformation that has taken place in contemporary Chicago in relation to both the globalization process and associated rise of neo-liberal approaches to public policy. In the first portion of this chapter, I present a general framework for interpreting globalization. Here, globalization is presented as one aspect of a new accumulation regime in which global cities play a pivotal role in the circulation of capital, commodities, images, and people. I emphasize the...
3. Economic Restructuring: Chicago’s Precarious Balance
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AFTER SPURRING CITIES across the country into a bidding war for its favors, Boeing Corporation announced, in March 2001, that it was moving its corporate headquarters from its long-time Seattle home to downtown Chicago. Although $56 million in public subsidies brought only 450 jobs, Chicago political and business leaders celebrated the capture of the nation’s leading exporter and iconic global corporation as proof of the city’s intrinsic attractions as a world corporate center (McCourt, Leroy, and Mattera 2003; Reed 2003)....
4. Chicago’s New Politics of Growth
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APART FROM MICHAEL JORDAN and Al Capone, Chicago’s most prominent citizen has been Richard J. Daley, mayor from the spring of 1955 until his death in late 1976. Many Chicagoans suppose that Daley invented the Democratic Party machine that monopolized local political power during the middle decades of the twentieth century, although more accurately, Daley should be viewed as the innovative legatee of his precursors,Anton Cermakand Ed Kelly. What even close observers of Chicago...
5. The Physical Transformation of Metropolitan Chicago
Chicago’s Central Area
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MARKTWAIN’S observations of Chicago, made more than a century ago, could not be more appropriate today. Although the last quarter of the twentieth century was witness to a most impressive array of changes and transformations that characterized many urban centers in the United States, this was especially the case in Chicago. These changes were responses to and the consequences of historical, social, economic, cultural, and political forces that, taken together...
6. Race Relations Chicago Style: Past, Present, and Future
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THE INTRODUCTORY chapter in this volume quotes Miller and d’Eramo’s description of Chicago as the “most American of cities,” believing, “to know America, you must understand Chicago” (Miller 1997, 17; d’Eramo 2002). This chapter details the past, present, and projected future components of conflict, contest, and collaboration among the racial groups that make up Chicago and its metropolitan region, with an emphasis on black, white, and Latino relationships....
Part III: The Immigrant Presence
7. Chicago: The Immigrant Capital of the Heartland
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WHEN OSCAR HANDLIN (1951) wrote, “Once I thought to write a history of the immigrants in America. Then I discovered that the immigrants were American history,” he could just as easily have been talking about Chicago then as now. One hundred and fifty years ago, approximately half of Chicago’s population was foreign-born. Then, the Alien Immigration Acts of the 1920s, the Great Depression, and two world wars dramatically reduced the flow, and the proportion of the city’s foreign-born population declined to a low of 11 percent by the 1970s....
8. Latinos of the New Chicago
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FEW GROUPS embody the new Chicago as well as Latinos.1 The Latino population has many of the characteristics associated with a dynamic and rapidly evolving modern city. These include a strong immigrant presence, a heritage distinct from Anglo traditions, bilingualism, heavy participation in new labor force sectors such as service jobs, and ongoing, rapid dispersion across many city neighborhoods and suburbs....
9. New Chicago Polonia: Urban and Suburban
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POLES HAVE BEEN immigrating to Chicago for over a century. Immigrant numbers peaked in the first decade of the twentieth century and by the time national quotas were introduced during the 1920s, almost half a million Poles and their children were living in Chicago. During the middle of the twentieth century, Polish migration was limited to mostly postwar refugees, but in the last decades, a new surge of immigrants arrived. These contemporary immigrants...
10. Asian Indians in Chicago
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ONE OF THE earliest immigrants of Indian origin to have made his home in Chicago is Chandra Lachman Singh, whose adventurous life remains a little-known immigrant saga. He came to New York from Grenada in 1911. He traveled to Chicago, where he worked in a restaurant on Wabash Avenue before being inducted into the army in 1918.He served in World War I, became a naturalized citizen, and purchased and managed residential properties in Lincoln Park and Hyde Park. Between 1929 and 1932, he and his wife went to India, where they worked with Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National...
11. Re-Visioning Filipino American Communities: Evolving Identities, Issues, and Organizations
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The first recorded group of Filipinos arrived in Illinois 100 years ago. In 1906, shortly after America’s victory in the Spanish American War, 178 Filipino college students were sponsored by the government to study in the United States. Nearly a quarter (24 percent) of the “pensionados” entered schools in Illinois, including the University of Chicago and the University of Illinois. This early migration of educated Filipinos to the Chicago region, spurred by the colonialist relationship between the United...
12. The Korean Presence in Chicago
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A BRIEF history of Koreans in the United States covers just over 100 years. In Chicago, the initial composition of the Korean community was certainly unique, and its history has had a large effect decades later. Issues universal to all immigrants also apply to Koreans, such as changing expectations of gender roles and a growing generation gap. However, issues that not all immigrants directly faced, such as the Korean community’s intimate and sometimes violent relationship with the African American community, also form part of this history. Above ...
13. Chicago’s Chinese Americans: From Chinatown and Beyond
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ALTHOUGH THIS DESCRIPTION was written more than 50 years ago by Paul Siu (1987) in his doctoral dissertation, The Chinese Laundryman, it aptly describes a significant number of Chinese Americans today. In recent decades, cities like Chicago have been transformed by changes in local and global restructuring that include the transnational migration of labor and capital. Given the higher visibility of Asian American populations in California and the Northeast...
14. Immigrants from the Arab World
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Communities created by immigrants from the Middle East and the Arab world are part of the new urban mosaic brought about by changes in U.S. immigration law in 1965.1 Once country quotaswere eliminated,migration from the Arab world and Middle East increased dramatically. These immigrants and their children have changed the physical and social landscape of many American cities, particularly Chicago. Cook County, which encompasses Chicago and ...
15. Immigrants at Work
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CURRENT CANONICAL LITERATURE about immigration and work contains two articles of faith germane to this chapter.1 The first canon looks at the demand side of the new economy’s job market and asserts that “the leading immigration regions display a prominent tilt toward jobs for which training is required and away from jobs of an easy-entry sort and for which the required skills can be picked up as one goes . . . places where the new knowledge-based economy is most advanced” (Waldinger 2001, 309)....
Part IV: Contested Reinvention and Civic Agency: Ten Case Studies
16. The Rebirth of Bronzeville: Contested Space and Contrasting Visions
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RACE AND CLASS struggles are well known to urbanologists who have studied and written about Chicago for the past century. In the case of Bronzeville, a community created by racial discrimination and then devastated by both urban renewal and urban disinvestment trends, residents and community leaders are now attempting to use racial heritage as an economic engine for community revitalization. In many instances, the cultural heritage theme has been ...
17. Devon Avenue: A World Market
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THROUGHTHE HEART of Chicago’s 50th ward runs Devon Avenue, carrying the commercial lifeblood of a multicultural neighborhood known as the “international marketplace.”1 Devon Avenue is the popular moniker, especially among South Asian immigrants, for what is called West Ridge in the Chicago community area maps and West Rogers Park by many Chicagoans. Devon Avenue’s international flavor is evident in its variety of shops and its 22 ...
18. The Affordable Housing Crisis in the Chicago Region
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PRIOR TO THE decline of manufacturing in South Side Chicago during the 1970s, relatively open, though unequal access was available to moderate-income employment, despite the intense local segregation of African Americans. As limited as their housing choices were, access to stable and living wages were within reach of most South Siders. However, preceding the decline of the local manufacturing economy and the subsequent contraction of African American ...
19. Back to Its Roots: The Industrial Areas Foundation and United Power for Action and Justice
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MODERN AMERICAN community organizing traces its roots back to the work during the 1930s of Saul Alinsky, a tough-guy intellectual with an independent leftist outlook, who organized an impoverished eastern European neighborhood near Chicago’s famed stockyards. Alinsky saw his Back of the Yards Organization, as well as later groups, such as The Woodlawn Organization (TWO, in an African American, South Side Chicago neighborhood), as the community counterparts of the industrial unions that were ...
20. Chicago School Reform: Advancing the Global City Agenda
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IN 1987, SECRETARY of Education William Bennett came to Chicago and pronounced its schools “the worst in the nation.” Just 11 years later, in 1998, President Clinton visited the city and declared that Chicago Public Schools (CPS) were “a model for the nation.” Indeed, at the millennium, Chicago’s school accountability system, based on high-stakes standardized tests, was an exemplar for urban schools districts and a template for the Bush administration’s No Child ...
21. Police and the Globalizing City: Innovation and Contested Reinvention
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IN 1960, on a cold January morning in a shabby North Side neighborhood, police arrested 23-year-old Richard Morrison, soon to be labeled the “babbling burglar.” In his 77-page confession, the small-time crook implicated eight Summerdale police district officers in a burglary and fencing racket. In a vigorous effort at damage control, Mayor Richard J. Daley appointed a new police chief with academic as well as experiential credentials—O. W. Wilson—to launch a major reform of the Chicago Police Department (CPD). Not only were hundreds of police ...
22. Transforming Public Housing
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DURING THE GLORY days of Richard J. Daley’s mayoralty, his admirers characterized Chicago as “the city that works.” The expression carried a double meaning. As late as the mid 1960s Chicago’s economic might and reputation for sustaining a well-tended social fabric remained unquestioned propositions. And, more pragmatically, Chicago’s municipal government was presumed to provide basic services—garbage collection, street cleaning, and the like—of a quality that was unmatched by other American metropolises....
23. Regionalism in a Historically Divided Metropolis
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ON NOVEMBER 19, 1998, one of Chicago’s most venerable civic organizations, the Commercial Club, issued a document ambitiously titled “Chicago Metropolis 2020: Preparing Metropolitan Chicago for the 21st Century” (Johnson 1998). Although each year dozens of Chicago-area civic organizations issue documents aiming to reshape one or another public policy debate, this report was unusual in its scope and was the object of uncharacteristic public attention. Among others, Chicago Mayor ...
24. Coalition Politics at America’s Premier Transportation Hub
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AT THE HEIGHT of the railroad era, Carl Sandburg described Chicago as a “Player with railroads and the nation’s freight handler.” Sandburg admired the city for its brawny character, its enterprising spirit, and its seemingly boundless industrial capacity. More than 80 years later, the city immortalized by Sandburg remains the country’s busiest freight and passenger interchange....
25. Urban Beautification: The Construction of a New Identity in Chicago
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DURING THE LAST 20 YEARS, cultural policy has become an integral part of economic and physical redevelopment strategies for many urban centers across the United States. Driven by deindustrialization, population decentralization, and globalization, many cities have turned to cultural strategies as a means to reposition themselves in a rapidly changing economic environment or to reaffirm their standing in an evolving metropolitan hierarchy....
Part V: Conclusion
26. Learning from Chicago
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A NEW ACCUMULATION regime is transforming industrial cities. In this volume, we are not developing a one-size-fits-all “New Chicago paradigm,” but opening a conversation about change in industrial cities, the causes of similarities and differences in the effect of the new accumulation regime, and the ways in which actors contest and negotiate responses to converging forces....
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About the Contributors
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Publication Year: 2006