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Universities in the Age of Corporate Science

The UC Berkeley-Novartis Controversy

Alan P. Rudy

Publication Year: 2007

As a result of widespread financial pressures, U.S. research universities increasingly stress the pursuit of funding beyond that available from government grants and contracts. Concomitantly, recent legal changes have encouraged universities to develop closer ties to the private business sector.This book represents the most thorough review ever undertaken of a major collaboration between industry and academe. A professional evaluation team obtained authorization for unprecedented access to those associated with the landmark $25 million contract entered into by the Plant and Microbial Biology Department at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Novartis Agricultural Discovery Institute, a subsidiary of Novartis, an international pharmaceutical and agribusiness conglomerate.This model study presents the inside story of the partnership itself, places it in the context of contemporary university-industry relationships, and provides a larger theoretical framework for evaluating such collaborations in the future.

Published by: Temple University Press


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pp. vii-viii

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pp. ix

HOW PEOPLE FEEL about the promotion and proliferation of university-industry relations at public universities is contingent on many things. Such relations may be seen as the best alternative for pursuing the funds lost when state legislatures reduce appropriations for higher education,...

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pp. xi-xii

A STUDY OF THIS SORT is always the result of the support and help of a wide variety of people. We wish to take the space here to thank those who enabled this report to be much more than it otherwise might have been. Dr. Anne MacLachlan of the Center for Studies in Higher...

Glossary of Acronyms

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pp. xiii-xiv

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ONE • Theoretical Framework

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pp. 1-17

MOST PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION appeal to philosophy in general, and to ethics in particular, to argue for (or against) a particular perspective. Of particular importance is the argument that a given ethical perspective is valid across all institutions, places, and times. This unitary view is commonly found in a variety of philosophies, including utilitarian...

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TWO • The Changing World of Universities

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pp. 18-34

UNIVERSITIES ARE NOT isolated institutions. Their existence and success depends on support from various political, economic, and nonprofit institutions. Thus, to understand the university, it is necessary to examine its role in society and its relations with other leading institutions...

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THREE • Land Grant Universities, Agricultural Science, and UC Berkeley

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pp. 35-45

IN ADDITION TO THE BROAD issues discussed in the previous chapter, the histories of agricultural sciences generally and of UCB specifically have affected the way the UCB-N agreement was perceived and the effects that it has had.Most important are tensions between progressive and populist...

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FOUR • A Chronology of Events

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pp. 46-70

EVERYTHING IS SAID to have a beginning, although reasonable people may disagree over where that beginning is. In this chapter, therefore, we present a chronology of the events relevant to the creation and implementation of the agreement between NADI and the Plant and Microbial Biology Department (PMB). For our story we think it necessary to step...

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FIVE • Points of Contention

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pp. 71-82

WHILE THE IMPLEMENTATION of the agreement was relatively uncontested and while many of the critics’worst fears were unrealized, the fact that the agreement was widely challenged is important on a number of levels. The controversy over the agreement is informative in that it sheds light on some of the larger issues and contested...

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SIX • Overview and Analysis of the Agreement

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pp. 83-93

AS DETAILED BY ZUCKER, Darby, and Armstrong (2002), commercially viable innovations may be expedited when academic and industrial scientists work closely together. Legal agreements between universities and commercial entities often define these relationships and associated financial arrangements. Numerous tutorials instruct practitioners...

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SEVEN • The Agreement and the Public Stage

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pp. 94-108

THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN the University of California, Berkeley and Novartis became a public concern on October 9, 1998, when the San Francisco Chronicle reported that these two organizations were in the final stages of their negotiations. The article mentioned that similar agreements...

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EIGHT • The Scientific Enterprise

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pp. 109-136

MUCH OF THE CONTROVERSY generated by UCB-N stemmed from the potential consequences such an agreement might have for the various constituents of PMB. There were questions regarding the effect of UCB-N on the research directions of faculty, postdoctoral...

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NINE • Intellectual Property Rights

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pp. 137-149

ALTHOUGH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY rights (IPR) are mentioned specifically in the U.S. Constitution, there was widespread agreement in the late nineteenth century that they were inapplicable to plants and animals. Bacteria and other microorganisms were considered patentable,...

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TEN • The Impact and Significance of UCB-N on UCB and CNR

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pp. 150-162

IN ITS FIRST STATEMENT on academic freedom, the fledgling American Association of University Professors (1990 [1915], 393) noted that “Academic freedom … comprises three elements: freedom of inquiry and research; freedom of teaching within the university or college; and freedom...

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ELEVEN • Rethinking the Role of Public and Land Grant Universities

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pp. 163-178

DESPITE A FAIRLY BUMPY ride through the twentieth century— encompassing two world wars, a global depression, a number of recessions, and the cold war—institutions of public higher education retained their largely progressive character before starting to gradually implode in the late 1960s. Starting with the emergence of the New Left, in connection...

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TWELVE • Constructing the Future: Re-visioning Universities

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pp. 179-208

THE INTRODUCTION we noted that core principles are at the center of an ethical framework. In this concluding chapter we draw conclusions and offer recommendations with an eye to ethical discernment. UCB-N acted as lightning rod for numerous inarticulate concerns about the role and purpose of the university. Both supporters and detractors claimed to...


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pp. 209-214


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pp. 215-232


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pp. 233-237

E-ISBN-13: 9781592135356
Print-ISBN-13: 9781592135349

Publication Year: 2007