Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere
Publication Year: 2013
Spying, the "world's second oldest profession," is hardly limited to the traditional great power countries. Intelligence Elsewhere, nevertheless, is the first scholarly volume to deal exclusively with the comparative study of national intelligence outside of the anglosphere and European mainstream. Past studies of intelligence and counterintelligence have tended to focus on countries such as the United States, Great Britain, and Russia, as well as, to a lesser extent, Canada, Australia, France, and Germany. This volume examines the deep historical and cultural origins of intelligence in several countries of critical importance today: India, China, the Arab world, and indeed, Russia, the latter examined from a fresh perspective. The authors then delve into modern intelligence practice in countries with organizations significantly different from the mainstream: Iran, Pakistan, Japan, Finland, Sweden, Indonesia, Argentina, and Ghana.
With contributions by leading intelligence experts for each country, the chapters give the reader important insights into intelligence culture, current practice, and security sector reform. As the world morphs into an increasingly multi-polar system, it is more important than ever to understand the national intelligence systems of rising powers and regional powers that differ significantly from those of the US, its NATO allies, and its traditional opponents. This fascinating book shines new light into intelligence practices in regions that, until now, have eluded our understanding.
Published by: Georgetown University Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Part I: Introduction and Theory
1 An Agenda for the Comparative Study of Intelligence: Yet Another Missing Dimension
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In the decades since Christopher Andrew and David Dilks resurrected Sir Alexander Cadogan’s description of intelligence as the ‘‘missing dimension of diplomatic history,’’ scholars of intelligence have themselves been uncovering assorted additional absent axes within the study of intelligence.1 Indeed, there are moments when intelligence scholars begin to feel a little like quantum...
2 Political Culture: Approaches and Prospects
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The idea of ‘‘intelligence culture’’ is not a free-standing invention of intelligence studies but rather is a projection into it of numerous applications of the concept of culture in the social sciences, most obviously the concept of ‘‘political culture’’ that has developed primarily (though not exclusively) within political science. Neither, however, is ‘‘political culture’’ a free-standing...
Part II: Intelligence Culture outside the Anglosphere
3 Subversive Information: The Historical Thrust of Chinese Intelligence
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For more than twenty-five-hundred years Chinese intelligence activities have been marked by vibrant theorizing and dedicated practice—the former encompassed within the essentially continuous military writings; the latter implemented throughout the virtually interminable warfare that plagued China, whenever its nominal geopolitical unity was shattered and millenarian...
4 The Original Surveillance State: Kautilya's Arthashastra and Government by Espionage in Classical India
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Although research into ever-more-archaic antecedents of contemporary thought in fields like political theory and strategic thought is well established, only recently has a comparable effort been made with regards to intelligence. In such discussions the typical point of departure is China’s Sun Tze whose chapter on the ‘‘divine skein’’ of military intelligence and his taxonomy...
5 Protecting the New Rome: Byzantine Influences on Russian Intelligence
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One of the great hopes of the last generation was that Russia, once freed from the bonds of communism, would rejoin the family of nations as an equal, free, and democratic state. Russia’s progress since the collapse of the USSR has of course not proceeded as some might have expected. As Dimitri Obolensky has commented, ‘‘There is much in contemporary Russia that seems...
6 Origins of an Arab and Islamic Intelligence Culture
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In his epistle ‘‘Secret Keeping and MincingWords,’’ the prolific ninth-century Arab writer and philosopher Al-Jahiz says that it is human nature ‘‘to seek news and intelligence.’’1 According to Al-Jahiz, humanity’s search for news is as old as history. The reason is not difficult to see. Life, or rather survival, requires constant responses to questions and queries that must be answered if...
Part III: Current Practice and Theory
7 Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
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In September 2011, ten years after the attacks in New York and Washington by al-Qaeda, and the initiation of United States–led operations in Afghanistan, the US chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Mike Mullen, announced that a truck bomb attack against a NATO post south of Kabul, an assault on the US Embassy, and a similar high-profile raid on the Intercontinental...
8 Iranian Intelligence Organizations
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The Islamist government of Iran is rooted in a vision of Twelver (Ithna- Ashari) Shi’ism, which traditionally asserted that any government other than that of the hidden imam1 was necessarily illegitimate.2 Clerical authorities came to govern Iran directly without intervening or parallel political structures only following the historically unique 1979 Revolution.3 To paraphrase...
9 Intelligence and Security-Sector Reform in Indonesia
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In the past thirty years throughout Europe, the Americas, and more sporadically elsewhere, the issue of how to institute some democratic control over security intelligence agencies has steadily permeated the political agenda. This shift has been a central, and sometimes painful, aspect of the democratization of formerly authoritarian regimes, both civilian and military. For example,...
10 A Reconstruction of Japanese Intelligence: Issues and Prospects
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On April 4, 2009, the Japanese government mistakenly announced that North Korea had launched a Taepodong-2 ballistic missile. The false news was distributed around the world. This incident does not mean that Japan always has a tendency to cry wolf, but it is true that Japanese intelligence has been much more vulnerable to these types of incidents compared...
11 The Process and Mechanisms of Developing a Democratic Intelligence Culture in Ghana
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With the possible exception of South Africa, Ghana is one of the few states in Sub-Saharan Africa with a historical intelligence culture. This is unique in postindependence Africa, where the use and abuse of intelligence became more focused on regime protection and its sustainability. In Ghana, however, because of the particular nature of the leadership of the...
12 Intelligence Community Reforms: The Case of Argentina
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After decades of dictatorships and military influence in domestic politics, Latin America’s new democracies faced the challenge to restore the respect for the rule of law and human rights. Intelligence is one of the issues with which they needed to deal. In fact, during the transition from the twentieth century to the twenty-first century, this challenge was twofold: to...
13 Sweden: Intelligence the Middle Way
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In many respects the creation, development, and nature of the Swedish national intelligence institutions is no different from that of a number of other small states in Northern Europe. The region was deeply affected by World War II and early in the Cold War became a geostrategic conflict zone and still to some extent remains one, although in a new European security...
14 Intelligence Culture, Economic Espionage, and the Finnish Security Intelligence Service
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In the domain of international intelligence, Finland offers a perspective into a developing intelligence culture with the potential to facilitate change in how intelligence is perceived and practiced by a small nation. Finland has no civilian domestic or foreign intelligence service. The national intelligence machinery is divided between the Finnish Defense Forces and the Police of...
Part IV: Conclusion
15 Legacies, Identities, Improvisation, and Innovations of Intelligence
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Like so many other institutions in human social and political affairs, intelligence is a field characterized by the presence of culture as a medium through which people both understand and act. As Talcott Parsons observed, culture may articulate both ends and means, but human action is ‘‘voluntaristic’’—that is, individuals act of their own accord but use culture...
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Page Count: 320
Illustrations: 1 table
Publication Year: 2013