Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere
Publication Year: 2013
Spying, the "world's second oldest profession," is hardly limited to the traditional great power countries. Intelligence Elsewhere, nevertheless, is the first scholarly volume to deal exclusively with the comparative study of national intelligence outside of the anglosphere and European mainstream. Past studies of intelligence and counterintelligence have tended to focus on countries such as the United States, Great Britain, and Russia, as well as, to a lesser extent, Canada, Australia, France, and Germany. This volume examines the deep historical and cultural origins of intelligence in several countries of critical importance today: India, China, the Arab world, and indeed, Russia, the latter examined from a fresh perspective. The authors then delve into modern intelligence practice in countries with organizations significantly different from the mainstream: Iran, Pakistan, Japan, Finland, Sweden, Indonesia, Argentina, and Ghana.
With contributions by leading intelligence experts for each country, the chapters give the reader important insights into intelligence culture, current practice, and security sector reform. As the world morphs into an increasingly multi-polar system, it is more important than ever to understand the national intelligence systems of rising powers and regional powers that differ significantly from those of the US, its NATO allies, and its traditional opponents. This fascinating book shines new light into intelligence practices in regions that, until now, have eluded our understanding.
Published by: Georgetown University Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Part I: Introduction and Theory
1 An Agenda for the Comparative Study of Intelligence: Yet Another Missing Dimension
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In the decades since Christopher Andrew and David Dilks resurrected SirAlexander Cadogan’s description of intelligence as the ‘‘missing dimensionof diplomatic history,’’ scholars of intelligence have themselves been uncov-ering assorted additional absent axes within the study of intelligence.1 Indeed,there are moments when intelligence scholars begin to feel a little like quantumphysicists who find themselves wrestling with the idea of large numbers of dif-ferent dimensions curled up, or ‘‘compactified,’’ in normal, three-dimensional...
2 Political Culture: Approaches and Prospects
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The idea of ‘‘intelligence culture’’ is not a free-standing invention of intelli-gence studies but rather is a projection into it of numerous applications ofthe concept of culture in the social sciences, most obviously the conceptof ‘‘political culture’’ that has developed primarily (though not exclusively)within political science. Neither, however, is ‘‘political culture’’ a free-standinginvention of political science; rather, it is the projection into it of wider cur-rents of thought that have eddied around the concept of culture since it first...
Part II: Intelligence Culture outside the Anglosphere
3 Subversive Information: The Historical Thrust of Chinese Intelligence
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Spying transcends human affairs. Spies must successfully undertakeactions beyond the capability of other men. How can their achieve-ments be compared with merely assaulting a city, occupying terrain,capturing an enemy’s flag, or killing a general? Their greatness isFor more than twenty-five-hundred years Chinese intelligence activitieshave been marked by vibrant theorizing and dedicated practice—the for-mer encompassed within the essentially continuous military writings; the...
4 The Original Surveillance State: Kautilya's Arthashastra and Government by Espionage in Classical India
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The arrow shot by an archer may or may not kill a single man; butskilful intrigue devised by wise men can kill even those who are inAlthough research into ever-more-archaic antecedents of contemporarythought in fields like political theory and strategic thought is well estab-lished, only recently has a comparable effort been made with regards tointelligence. In such discussions the typical point of departure is China’s SunTze whose chapter on the ‘‘divine skein’’ of military intelligence and his taxon-...
5 Protecting the New Rome: Byzantine Influences on Russian Intelligence
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When we mentally picture Byzantinism, we see before us . . . theaustere, clear plan of a spacious and capacious structure. We know,for example, that in politics it means autocracy. In religion, it meansChristianity with distinct features, which distinguish it from Westernchurches, from heresies and schisms. In the area of ethics we know...
6 Origins of an Arab and Islamic Intelligence Culture
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In his epistle ‘‘Secret Keeping and Mincing Words,’’ the prolific ninth-centuryArab writer and philosopher Al-Jahiz says that it is human nature ‘‘to seeknews and intelligence.’’1 According to Al-Jahiz, humanity’s search for newsis as old as history. The reason is not difficult to see. Life, or rather survival,requires constant responses to questions and queries that must be answered ifone is to protect oneself and prepare for unforeseen eventualities. Arabs, likeother nations of the world, used intelligence and engaged in a variety of espio-...
Part III: Current Practice and Theory
7 Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
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In September 2011, ten years after the attacks in New York and Washingtonby al-Qaeda, and the initiation of United States–led operations in Afghani-stan, the US chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Mike Mullen,announced that a truck bomb attack against a NATO post south of Kabul, anassault on the US Embassy, and a similar high-profile raid on the Intercontinen-tal Hotel in the Afghan capital had been planned and conducted by the mili-tant Jihadist Haqqani network with the support of the Directorate of Pakistan’s...
8 Iranian Intelligence Organizations
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The Islamist government of Iran is rooted in a vision of Twelver (Ithna-Ashari) Shi’ism, which traditionally asserted that any government otherthan that of the hidden imam1 was necessarily illegitimate.2 Clericalauthorities came to govern Iran directly without intervening or parallel politicalstructures only following the historically unique 1979 Revolution.3 To para-phrase Gabriel Almond, as quoted by Stephen Welch in chapter 2, the 1979Revolution changed the ‘‘pattern of orientations to political action’’ wherein...
9 Intelligence and Security-Sector Reform in Indonesia
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In the past thirty years throughout Europe, the Americas, and more sporadi-cally elsewhere, the issue of how to institute some democratic control oversecurity intelligence agencies has steadily permeated the political agenda.This shift has been a central, and sometimes painful, aspect of the democratiza-tion of formerly authoritarian regimes, both civilian and military. For example,the death of the dictator Francisco Franco in 1976 precipitated democratizationin Spain that included the demilitarization of intelligence. Military rule ended...
10 A Reconstruction of Japanese Intelligence: Issues and Prospects
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On April 4, 2009, the Japanese government mistakenly announced thatNorth Korea had launched a Taepodong-2 ballistic missile. The falsenews was distributed around the world. This incident does not meanthat Japan always has a tendency to cry wolf, but it is true that Japanese intelli-gence has been much more vulnerable to these types of incidents comparedwith other countries. After World War II, Japan failed to build an overseasintelligence apparatus or develop an institutionalized intelligence community,...
11 The Process and Mechanisms of Developing a Democratic Intelligence Culture in Ghana
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With the possible exception of South Africa, Ghana is one of the fewstates in Sub-Saharan Africa with a historical intelligence culture.This is unique in postindependence Africa, where the use and abuseof intelligence became more focused on regime protection and its sustainability.In Ghana, however, because of the particular nature of the leadership of thecountry’s independence struggle, when it won its independence in 1957, a keyfocus of its leaders became establishing institutions, structures, and procedures...
12 Intelligence Community Reforms: The Case of Argentina
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After decades of dictatorships and military influence in domestic politics,Latin America’s new democracies faced the challenge to restore therespect for the rule of law and human rights. Intelligence is one of theissues with which they needed to deal. In fact, during the transition from thetwentieth century to the twenty-first century, this challenge was twofold: todemocratize the intelligence sector, and to adapt it to the threats and risksarising in a new and changing security environment. Significant progress in the...
13 Sweden: Intelligence the Middle Way
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It’s exactly when formalities have to be observed so carefully andcompletely, as in Sweden, that it’s easiest to circumvent them and—From the novel The Queen’s Diadem, by C. J. L. Almqvist, 1834In many respects the creation, development, and nature of the Swedishnational intelligence institutions is no different from that of a number ofother small states in Northern Europe. The region was deeply affected byWorld War II and early in the Cold War became a geostrategic conflict zone...
14 Intelligence Culture, Economic Espionage, and the Finnish Security Intelligence Service
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In the domain of international intelligence, Finland offers a perspective intoa developing intelligence culture with the potential to facilitate change inhow intelligence is perceived and practiced by a small nation. Finland hasno civilian domestic or foreign intelligence service. The national intelligencemachinery is divided between the Finnish Defense Forces and the Police ofFinland. The Finnish Security Intelligence Service, previously known inEnglish as the Finnish Security Police (Suojelupoliisi, Supo) is the operational...
Part IV: Conclusion
15 Legacies, Identities, Improvisation, and Innovations of Intelligence
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Like so many other institutions in human social and political affairs, intelli-gence is a field characterized by the presence of culture as a mediumthrough which people both understand and act. As Talcott Parsonsobserved, culture may articulate both ends and means, but human action is‘‘voluntaristic’’—that is, individuals act of their own accord but use culturerather than being directed by it.1 Culture tells us less what people will do thanhow they will go about doing it. Beliefs, concepts, values, and norms are, in the...
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Page Count: 320
Illustrations: 1 table
Publication Year: 2013