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Cyberspace and National Security

Threats, Opportunities, and Power in a Virtual World

Derek S. Reveron, Editor

Publication Year: 2012

In a very short time, individuals and companies have harnessed cyberspace to create new industries, a vibrant social space, and a new economic sphere that are intertwined with our everyday lives. At the same time, individuals, subnational groups, and governments are using cyberspace to advance interests through malicious activity. Terrorists recruit, train, and target through the Internet, hackers steal data, and intelligence services conduct espionage. Still, the vast majority of cyberspace is civilian space used by individuals, businesses, and governments for legitimate purposes.

Cyberspace and National Security brings together scholars, policy analysts, and information technology executives to examine current and future threats to cyberspace. They discuss various approaches to advance and defend national interests, contrast the US approach with European, Russian, and Chinese approaches, and offer new ways and means to defend interests in cyberspace and develop offensive capabilities to compete there. Policymakers and strategists will find this book to be an invaluable resource in their efforts to ensure national security and answer concerns about future cyberwarfare.

Published by: Georgetown University Press

List of Illustrations

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pp. vii

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pp. ix

CREATING AN EDITED VOLUME has many challenges. Authors have different writing styles and schedules, editors struggle to ensure coherence, and publishers need timeliness and relevance. On these points, any flaws are my own, and I am grateful to the patience and guidance that Don Jacobs and the rest of the staff of...


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1. An Introduction to National Security and Cyberspace

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pp. 3-19

IN ITS SHORT HISTORY, individuals and companies have harnessed cyberspace to create new industries, a vibrant social space, and a new economic sphere that are intertwined with our everyday lives. At the same time, individuals, subnational groups, and governments are using cyberspace...

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2. Speculative Security

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pp. 21-35

ON MAY 22, 2010, the Pentagon launched a new core operation: the US Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM). This command is responsible for protecting American military computer networks from a host of digital threats, including ‘‘foreign actors, terrorists, criminal groups and individual...

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3. Operational Considerations in Cyber Attack and Cyber Exploitation

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pp. 37-56

IN THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER, Dr. Jagoda reminds us that much of our thinking and vocabulary to describe cyberspace has its roots in fiction. Yet it is science that governs what is possible. This chapter focuses on the technical and operational dimensions of cyber attack and cyber exploitation...

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4. Joining Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism: A Likely Scenario

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pp. 57-68

IN THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER, Herb Lin explained the technical dimensions of conducting cyber attacks and cyber exploitation. In this chapter I describe how these tools can be used by cybercriminals and cyberterrorists. As discussed in chapter 1, the world faces a wide array of cyber threats...


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5. Inter arma silent leges Redux? The Law of Armed Conflict and Cyber Conflict

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pp. 71-87

FOR YEARS, EXPERTS HAVE PREDICTED that states will become increasingly interested in and adept at using computers and the Internet as weapons of war. Recent developments indicate that countries and their capabilities in cyberspace have entered a more serious dimension concerning...

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6. The Emerging Structure of Strategic Cyber Offense, Cyber Defense, and Cyber Deterrence

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pp. 89-104

AT THE HEIGHT OF THE COLD WAR IN JUNE OF 1982, an American satellite detected a three-kiloton blast emanating from Siberia. Upon examination, analysts discovered that the explosion was the result of a logic bomb implanted by the United States in the cyber physical control system that...

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7. A New Framework for Cyber Deterrence

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pp. 105-120

INFORMATION HAS ALWAYS BEEN a key element of national power and influence. Enabled by modern digital technologies, worldwide communications and information networks have fundamentally reshaped patterns of international trade, finance, and global intercourse in general. These patterns...

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8. Cybered Conflict, Cyber Power, and Security Resilience as Strategy

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pp. 121-136

THE UBIQUITY, CONNECTIVITY, AND CRITICALITY of cyberspace changes national security balances throughout the globe. Cyber power transcends geography’s natural barriers and can cause harm to others on varying scales while the cyber actors remain safely a long distance away. Among the concepts...


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9. Persistent Enemies and Cyberwar: Rivalry Relations in an Age of Information Warfare

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pp. 139-157

IN OCTOBER 2010 THE US CYBER COMMAND was constituted as an active military four-star command. The 2010 National Intelligence Annual Threat Assessment states that the United States is ‘‘severely threatened’’ by cyber attacks. With the increased importance of wars involving nonstate actors, the...

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10. Competing Transatlantic Visions of Cybersecurity

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pp. 159-172

THE UNITED STATES, UNITED KINGDOM, AND CONTINENTAL EUROPE have very different approaches to cybersecurity. The United States and United Kingdom conceive of cyber primarily as a national security problem to be handled by the military—which in turn sees the Internet as a fifth domain...

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11. The Bear Goes Digital: Russia and Its Cyber Capabilities

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pp. 173-189

IN SPITE OF ITS SOVIET PAST, contemporary Russia does not have the reputation of being in the vanguard of the most technologically advanced countries in the world. In 2009 President Dmitry Medvedev lamented the fact that Russia was ‘‘significantly behind other countries in developing advanced...

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12. China in Cyberspace

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pp. 191-205

AS WITH MUCH ELSE ABOUT CHINA, the speed and intensity with which the country has developed Internet usage has taken the world by surprise. The Internet first came to China in 1994 in a project linking some three hundred physicists. By 1998, two years after Internet accessibility became available...

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13. Toward a Theory of Cyber Power: Strategic Purpose in Peace and War

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pp. 207-224

PREVIOUS CHAPTERS FOCUSED on the technical, tactical, and operational aspects of operating in the cyber domain. These are undoubtedly important topics, but this chapter focuses on the strategic purpose of cyber power for the ends of policy. Understanding the strategic purpose for cyber power is...

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14. Conclusion

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pp. 225-230

IN JUST A FEW SHORT YEARS, inexpensive computing and easy network access have broadened the scope of national security actors from states to groups and individuals. To appreciate the challenges associated with the new security landscape, this book has addressed various operational considerations...


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pp. 231-235


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pp. 237-246

E-ISBN-13: 9781589019195
E-ISBN-10: 1589019199
Print-ISBN-13: 9781589019188
Print-ISBN-10: 1589019180

Page Count: 256
Illustrations: 1 figure, 13 tables
Publication Year: 2012