Oil and Wilderness in Alaska
Natural Resources, Environmental Protection, and National Policy Dynamics
Publication Year: 2013
Colliding environmental and development interests have shaped national policy reforms supporting both oil development and environmental protection in Alaska. Oil and Wilderness in Alaska examines three significant national policy reform efforts that came out of these conflicts: the development of the Trans-Alaska pipeline, the establishment of a vast system of protected natural areas through the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, and the reform of the environmental management of the marine oil trade in Alaska to reduce the risk of oil pollution after the Exxon Valdez disaster.
Illuminating the delicate balance and give-and-take between environmental and commercial interests, as well as larger issues shaping policy reforms, Busenberg applies a theoretical framework to examine the processes and consequences of these reforms at the state, national, and international levels. The author examines the enduring institutional legacies and policy consequences of each reform period, their consequences for environmental protection, and the national and international repercussions of reform efforts. The author concludes by describing the continuing policy conflicts concerning oil development and nature conservation in Alaska left unresolved by these reforms. Rich case descriptions illustrate the author's points and make this book an essential resource for professors and students interested in policies concerning Alaska, the Arctic, oil development, nature conservation, marine oil spills, the policy process, and policy theory.
Published by: Georgetown University Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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This book is the product of many years of research concerning oiland wilderness in Alaska. During those years my research has bene-fited greatly from the advice and assistance of a number of peoplewhom I would like to thankhere. The theory of thepolicy process applied inthis book was developed by Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones, and I amgrateful for the efforts of these two scholars both in developing a new theoryof the policy process and in supporting my efforts to apply that theory to...
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MARPOL 73/78 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution...
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
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This book examines the development of national policies for oildevelopment and nature conservation in the state of Alaska. Alaskacontains the largest developed oil field in the United States, and oildevelopment poses major threats to the environment across large areas ofAlaska(McBeathetal.2008).Alaskaalsocontainsthemostextensivesystemof land conservation areas of any state in America, and national effortsto conserve the extraordinary wilderness and wildlife values of Alaska...
CHAPTER 2 The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
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The critical period of reform that eventually authorized theTrans-Alaskapipelinebeganwiththeannouncementofthediscoveryof the Prudhoe Bay oil field in the North Slope region of Alaska in1968. The Prudhoe Bay oil field was the largest oil field discovered in NorthAmerica. In 1969, another oil field that ranked among the largest in NorthAmerica (Kuparuk) was also discovered on the North Slope of Alaska(McBeath et al. 2008; Worster 1994). While a significant oil field discovery...
CHAPTER 3 The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act
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The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act played impor-tant roles in both the Alaska pipeline punctuation and in a subse-quent punctuation concerning Alaska lands conservation. A 1978House of Representatives report noted that the Alaska Native Claims Settle-ment Actin 1971 ‘‘set in motion a sequence of events whichmay wellconsti-tute the most significant single land conservation action in the history of ourcountry’’ (H.R. Rep. No. 95-1045 Part I 1978, 70). Following the enactment...
CHAPTER 4 The Exxon Valdez Disaster and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990
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In 1977theTrans-AlaskaPipelineSystemcommenced oil ship-ments, thereby establishing a marine oil trade that posed significant haz-ards to the coastal environment of Alaska. The risk to the environmentposed by the marine oil trade in Alaska had been widelydiscussed during theAlaskapipelinepunctuation.InthecourseoftheAlaskapipelinepunctuation,the Nixon administration and the oil industry had made repeated assurancesconcerning the safety of the oil tanker fleet to be used in the Trans-Alaska...
CHAPTER 5 Oil, Wilderness, and Alaska: The Enduring Conflict
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Thethreecriticalperiodsofreformexamined in this booktogether established enduring policy realignments governing oildevelopment andnature conservationin Alaska.However, these pol-icy realignments did not end the national conflict over oil and wilderness inAlaska. This chapter examines two particularly important political controver-sies concerning oil and wilderness in the northern Alaska region. For thepurposes of this book, the terms northern Alaska region and American Arctic...
CHAPTER 6 Conclusion
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Thisbookhasexamined three major cases of policy reform thatmatch the patterns of policy change predicted by the punctuatedequilibrium theory (Baumgartner and Jones 2009). In each case, anequilibrium period of incremental policy change was punctuated by a criticalperiodofmajorpolicyreform.Eachcriticalperiodwasmarkedbyheightenedmediaandcongressionalattentionsupportiveofreformandbytheauthoriza-tion of new institutional arrangements and policy images that established a...
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Page Count: 176
Illustrations: 4 maps, 8 figures
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: American Governance and Public Policy series