Brussels Versus the Beltway
Advocacy in the United States and the European Union
Publication Year: 2008
Published by: Georgetown University Press
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First I would like to thank the 149 advocates who so graciously granted me interviews. Spending more than one hundred hours speaking with these individuals was enlightening and inspiring. I would also like to thank the Penn State Political Science Department for supporting my research every step of the way, from a summer interviewing ...
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Lobbying is a thriving industry on both sides of the Atlantic. K Street is notorious in Washington as the locus of high-powered lobbyists, with the Hill as the primary object of their attention. Round Point Schuman and Avenue de Cortenbergh form the geographical center in Brussels, with lobbyists descending on Berlaymont and Parliament. Both systems involve a ...
1. The U.S. and EU Political Systems
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This chapter briefly introduces the two polities for those readers not familiar with one or the other political system and highlights the most pertinent institutional factors for the research presented in the following chapters. The U.S. and EU political systems have a great deal in common. Both have a federated structure with some responsibilities, or competencies, resting with ...
2. Explaining Advocacy
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Numerous handbooks and how-to manuals have been written in both the United States and the European Union on how to lobby successfully (Guyer 2003; Watkins et al. 2001; Avner 2002; Burson-Marsteller 2003). However, attempts at an all-purpose prescription for successful lobbying are misguided, for there is no such thing as the best advocacy strategy, the best ...
3. Researching Advocacy
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The previous chapter laid out the theoretical basis for the research—arguing institutional, issue, and interest factors collude to determine the nature of a lobbyist’s advocacy strategy on a given political issue. Until now a model simultaneously considering the effect of the three sets of independent variables—institutions, issues, and interests—on the entire advocacy process, ...
4. Lobbying Positions
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Many observers of U.S. and EU politics perceive a great difference between U.S. and EU lobbying styles. Wöll’s comprehensive review of the literature in this area concludes that “all analysts seem to agree that EU lobbying is less confrontation and more consensus-oriented than U.S. lobbying” (2005b, 7). She references a number of scholars to support this interpretation, ...
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Advocacy at base is argumentation. While there can be a great deal of variation in how and to whom various policy arguments are communicated—as the following chapters will detail—it is the arguments themselves that are fundamental to advocacy. This chapter will consider the determinants of argument selection. The theoretical expectations are presented first, followed ...
6. Lobbying Targets
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The early scholarly works on lobbying in America painted a picture of unbridled power of special interests dictating the nation’s public policy. Cater (1964) detailed the uncontested influence of the sugar lobby and military–industrial complex. Advocates for sugar producers and defense manufacturers were portrayed as largely dictating legislation in these areas...
7. Inside Lobbying Tactics
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Knowing the arguments and the primary targets of those arguments is not enough; advocates also will have to decide on the most effective way to directly communicate their message to policymakers. This is the world of inside lobbying; it is the day-to-day life of advocates in Washington and Brussels.1 It involves participating in hearings, consultations, and stakeholder ...
8. Outside Lobbying Tactics
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As the previous chapters have demonstrated, the complex world of insider lobbying involves countless critical decisions about which methods to use to directly communicate to policymakers and which policymakers to target. Effective lobbying campaigns, however, are not always limited to actions within the Beltway or Brussels. Sometimes it is necessary to reach out to ...
9. Networking and Coalitions
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One often-cited adage about lobbying is “It’s all about who you know.” While that might not be the entire story, as the previous chapters have shown, it is clear that knowing the right people—talking with them, sharing information with them—are important determinants of lobbying behavior. Talking matters; communication is paramount. Indeed, an introverted lobbyist ...
10. Lobbying Success
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The aim of lobbying is to influence public policy; thus it is natural as political scientists we would seek to study lobbyists’ ability to achieve influence. As natural as it may seem, however, group scholars have not by and large studied lobbying influence. Instead they have tended to avoid it, finding it troubling to quantitatively measure the concept. In both the United States and ...
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Many observers have suggested the U.S. and the EU policy communities are converging in their lobbying practices; others have claimed advocacy in the two systems is categorically different. This book has shown that neither extreme is accurate. American and European advocates share similarities and also display differences. The argumentation strategies employed by American and European ...
Appendix: Case Descriptions
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Page Count: 272
Publication Year: 2008
Series Title: American Governance and Public Policy series
Series Editor Byline: