The Butterflies of Iowa
Publication Year: 2007
It begins by providing information on the natural communities of Iowa, paying special attention to butterfly habitat and distribution. Next come chapters on the history of lepidopteran research in Iowa and on creating butterfly gardens, followed by an intriguing series of questions and issues relevant to the study of butterflies in the state.
The second part contains accounts, organized by family, for the 118 species known to occur in Iowa. Each account includes the common and scientific names for each species, its Opler and Warren number, its status in Iowa, adult flight times and number of broods per season, distinguishing features, distribution and habitat, and natural history information such as behavior and food plant preferences. As a special feature of each account, the authors have included questions that illuminate the research and conservation challenges for each species.
In the third section, the illustrations, grouped for easier comparison among species, include color photographs of all the adult forms that occur in Iowa. Male and female as well as top and bottom views are shown for most species. The distribution maps indicate in which of Iowa’s ninety-nine counties specimens have been collected; flight times for each species are shown by marking the date of collection for each verified specimen on a yearly calendar.
The book ends with a checklist, collection information specific to the photographs, a glossary, references, and an index. The authors’ meticulous attention to detail, stimulating questions for students and researchers, concern for habitat preservation, and joyful appreciation of the natural world make it a valuable and inspiring volume.
Published by: University of Iowa Press
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Preface and Acknowledgments
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This book deals specifically with the butterflies of Iowa. Along with more comprehensive texts and field guides (Glassberg 1999; Opler and Malikul 1998; Pyle 1981; Scott 1986; and Winter 2000), it can be used as a manual for the identification of all butterflies known to occur in Iowa as well as 90 percent of the butterflies in the Plains states. In the first part of the book, we provide information on the natural communities of Iowa, with special attention to butterfly habitat ...
Part One. An Introduction to Iowa Butterflies
The Natural Communities of Iowa and Their Butterflies
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Butterfly species are not randomly distributed in Iowa. They live only where their requirements for life are met. These include places where egg‑laying, larval feeding, pupation, mate selection, and adult nectaring can occur. While some common species, including the Cabbage White, Sachem, Clouded Sulphur, Silver-spotted Skipper, Common Sootywing, Pearl ...
A History of Butterfly Collecting in Iowa
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Some of the earliest recorded collectors in Iowa were not residents. J. A. Allen collected in Crawford, Greene, and Dallas counties and made field observations during the summer of 1867 and brought forty‑six species east to Samuel H. Scudder. The lack of inclusion of Iowa specimens in the rash of new U.S. species being described in the mid 1800s led Scudder to publish his untitled note (1868b), where he shared information on Allen’s specimens with members of the ...
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One of the great pleasures in studying butterflies is attracting them to your own site. Butterfly gardens have become very popular in recent years. In fact most of the inquiries we receive are about attracting butterflies. Having butterflies at hand especially captivates children. Many teachers routinely rear Painted Lady butterflies in the classroom. For adults the challenge is to design and ...
Problems for Future Research
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Much work remains to be done on all aspects of the butterflies of Iowa. Reading through the species accounts will give you an excellent idea of appropriate problems in need of solution. Not a single species is completely known in terms of its total biology and natural history.In this chapter, we have listed some questions under general headings that could ...
Part Two. The Butterflies of Iowa
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Introduction to the Species Accounts
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In all, 131 butterfly species have been reported from Iowa. It is likely that 13 of these were errors due to misidentification or mislabeling of specimens. These dubious species (and their reasons for exclusion) are enumerated at the end of the species accounts. The remaining 118 have been documented in Iowa from at least one verifiable specimen. Of these, 6 stray only occasionally into the state from other regions and may not be observed every season. The Dakota Skipper has not been sighted since ....
Skippers: Family Hesperiidae
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Many characteristics separate the skippers from the “true” butterflies. All skippers have twelve unbranched fore-wing veins arising from either the cell or the wing base. The head of the skipper is wider than the body, and the antennae clubs are usually hooked or bent. The early stages are also diagnostic: the larva is subcylindrical but has a reduced first body segment, making it ...
Swallowtails: Family Papilionidae
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All Iowa Papilionidae are members of the subfamily Papilioninae, large butter- flies with tails at the end of hind-wing vein M3. The fore legs are completely developed in both sexes, and the tarsal claws are simple. The larvae are large, smooth, and often brightly colored. Some species have false eyes on the thorax to frighten predators. The larvae also bear an osmeterium (a fleshy, forked ...
Whites, Sulphurs, and Marbles: Family Pieridae
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Pierid butterflies in Iowa are generally small to medium species with white, yellow, or orange wings, making them some of the most visible members of our fauna. The Iowa Pierids belong to two subfamilies, the whites and marbles (Pierinae) and the sulphurs (Coliadinae). One of the species (Cabbage White) is a garden pest, while another (Orange Sulphur) can be an important alfalfa pest. ...
Coppers, Blues, Hairstreaks, and Harvesters: Family Lycaenidae
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While the Lycaenids represent the world’s largest family of butterflies, they are only the third largest Iowa family. Lycaenids are characterized by a reduced male tarsus bearing a single claw, absence of the humeral vein on the hind wing, and reduced fore-wing veins (ten to eleven). The genitalia of both sexes are often distinctive and useful for taxonomic identification....
Brush-footed Butterflies: Family Nymphalidae
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The Nymphalids are a diverse group of small to large butterflies characterized by aborted fore legs covered with short hairs in both sexes. The pupae of all Nymphalids are suspended from the substrate by their cremasters. The family is quite diverse in Iowa, with eight subfamilies being represented: the Libytheinae (snouts), Danainae (milkweed butterflies), Heliconiinae (longwings and fritillaries), ...
Part Three. Plates, Range Maps, and Flight Diagrams
Introduction to the Plates
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This section includes photographs of the adult forms of all butterflies known to occur in Iowa. Each was digitally recorded against a photographically neutral gray background. No attempt has been made to preserve the scale of different species; the reader should check the sizes in the species accounts for comparisons.Male and female as well as top and bottom views are shown for most species. The first ...
Introduction to the Range Maps and Flight Diagrams
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The distribution maps indicate in which of Iowa’s ninety-nine counties specimens have been collected. Each county dot is shaded based on the year of most recent collection: black dots represent collections made from 1980 to 2005; double open circles represent collections made from 1960 through 1979; single The flight time for each species is shown by marking the date of collection for each ...
Checklist of Iowa Butterflies
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The butterfly numbers follow the order of “Butterflies of North America: 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, North of Mexico” (Opler and Warren 2003). Each species is assigned a place in the list based on its taxonomic relationships ☐ 165 Leonard’s Skipper, Hesperia leonardus leonardus and ☐ 659b Ozark Baltimore Checkerspot, Euphydryas phaeton ozarkae...
Butterfly Collection Data
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In the citations of original descriptions, we list the true date of publication; we trust that the reader will be able to identify the publication referred to, because its publication date will encompass the date quoted. In the case of authors whose works appeared in overlapping years, we give first the initial year of the reference in quotation marks, followed by the true date of publication of the name in brackets. For multivolume publications in which more than one volume had pages start
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Bur Oak Nature Guides
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Page Count: 252
Publication Year: 2007
Series Title: Bur Oak Book