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Chicano Education in the Era of Segregation

Gilbert G. Gonzalez

Publication Year: 2013

Chicano Education in the Era of Segregation analyzes the socioeconomic origins of the theory and practice of segregated schooling for Mexican-Americans from 1910 to 1950. Gilbert G. Gonzalez links the various aspects of the segregated school experience, discussing Americanization, testing, tracking, industrial education, and migrant education as parts of a single system designed for the processing of the Mexican child as a source of cheap labor. The movement for integration began slowly, reaching a peak in the 1940s and 1950s. The 1947 Mendez v. Westminster case was the first federal court decision and the first application of the Fourteenth Amendment to overturn segregation based on the “separate but equal” doctrine. This paperback features an extensive new Preface by the author discussing new developments in the history of segregated schooling. “[Gonzalez] successfully identifies the socioeconomic and political roots of the inequality of education of Chicanos. . . . It is an important historical and policy source for understanding current and future issues affecting the education of Chicanos.”—Dennis J. Bixler-Marquez, International Migration Review

Published by: University of North Texas Press

Cover

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pp. 1-3

Title Page

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p. 4-4

Copyright Page, Dedication

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pp. 5-7

Table of Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xxxviii

Much of the history addressed in this book has changed, and yet much remains the same. When historians first began to study the Chicano community, their emphasis was on the Southwest and often their home state and, of course, on the Mexican community. Things have changed enormously since then and the Latino population, including the Mexican...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xlii

I would like to thank the following persons for their contributions to this study: my colleagues, Jose Ocampo and Raul Fernandez; for bibliographical assistance, Roger Berry of the University of California, Irvine, Special Collections; and for technical assistance, Edna Mejia. Finally, my thanks to my children, Ramon and Xochitl, for their support and constant...

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Introduction: Background to Segregation

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pp. 1-22

The American public school system has treated Mexican-Americans differently from other Americans; the consequences have contrasted markedly with the proposed objectives of dominant educational policies and practices. To understand the full nature of this contrast, we must first begin by acknowledging that historically, political domination...

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Chapter 1: Culture and Language

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pp. 23-44

During the segregation period, Americanization was the prime objective of the education of Mexican children. Authorities reorganized schooling administration and practices whenever the Mexican population rose to significant numbers in a community and whenever Mexican children because increasingly visible on the school registers...

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Chapter 2: The Americanization of the Mexican Family

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pp. 45-66

The target of Americanization extended beyond the Mexican child in the classroom to include the adults in the colonia or barrio. For example, in many communities of the Southwest, classes for women included English, nutrition, child rearing, hygiene, homemaking, and sewing. While the men also took courses in English, Americanization training...

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Chapter 3: Intelligence Testing and the Mexican Child

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pp. 67-86

Studies of the intellectual abilities and educational achievement of Mexicans in relation to other races and nationalities in the United States between 1915 and 1950 showed the Mexican child scoring consistently lower than the normal range and the average for the Anglo population. The authors of no fewer than sixteen studies, most dating to the twenties...

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Chapter 4: Training for Occupational Efficiency

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pp. 87-118

The educational program of the segregated school featured vocational education as the curricular track suited to the particular needs of the Mexican community. Teachers, administrators, researchers, and boards of education functioned as a single mind when it came to planning such educational programs for Mexican children. These programs placed...

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Chapter 5: The Education of Migrant Children

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pp. 119-144

This chapter explores and analyzes an ignored yet crucial topic: the education of Mexican migrant children. In general, most educational historiography has lumped the education of the urban resident child with that of the migrant child.1 It is important to recognize the variation within the educational experience of the Mexican community. We will...

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Chapter 6: Inter-American and Intercultural Education

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pp. 145-174

The problem of inequality in educational resources and achievement has long been a source of conflict between the Mexican community and the Anglo-dominated educational system. Analysts on all sides have generally interpreted the problem as stemming from either local, regional, or national contexts. No one has, however, offered an analysis...

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Chapter 7: De Jure Segregation

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pp. 175-202

The practice of segregation created its political opposition, and although this study has focused on the action of segregation, the social movement to end segregation is of critical importance to understanding the era of segregation. Furthermore, we cannot fully appreciate the process of desegregating American society without recognizing the role...

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Conclusion: The Education of Chicano Children

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pp. 203-208

Most historical accounts of the Chicano educational experience tend to blend the various aspects of this history into a single, unilinear, and unbroken process. In this study, I have taken the opposite approach by separating the segments composing this history and by analyzing them as particular entities, which together formed a single educational...

Endnotes

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pp. 209-262

Bibliography

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pp. 263-286

Index

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pp. 287-291


E-ISBN-13: 9781574415162
Print-ISBN-13: 9781574415018

Page Count: 240
Illustrations: 10 b&w illus.
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: Al Filo: Mexican American Studies Series