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Deaf Students and the Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

Understanding Language and Literacy Development

Peter V. Paul, Ye Wang, and CheriWilliams, Editors

Publication Year: 2013

Sign language interpreters often offer the primary avenue of access for deaf and hard of hearing students in public schools. More than 80% of all deaf children today are mainstreamed, and few of their teachers sign well enough to provide them with full access. As a result, many K-12 interpreters perform multiple roles beyond interpreting. Yet, very little is known about what they actually do and what factors inform their moment-to-moment decisions. This volume presents the range of activities and responsibilities performed by educational interpreters, and illuminates what they consider when making decisions. To learn about the roles of K–12 interpreters, author Melissa B. Smith conducted in-depth analyses at three different schools. She learned that in response to what interpreters feel that their deaf students need, many focus on three key areas: 1) visual access, 2) language and learning, and 3) social and academic participation/inclusion. To best serve their deaf students in these contexts, they perform five critical functions: they assess and respond to the needs and abilities of deaf students; they interpret with or without modification as they deem appropriate; they capitalize on available resources; they rely on interactions with teachers and students to inform their choices; and they take on additional responsibilities as the need arises.

Published by: Gallaudet University Press

Cover

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p. C-C

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-x

The main purpose of this book is to describe the theoretical underpinnings and to synthesize the findings of research based on or related to the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH). Although the targeted population is children and adolescents who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh), it is important to apply our understanding of the development of English in other populations of struggling readers and writers...

Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

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1 Introduction to the Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

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pp. 1-25

In this introductory chapter we provide a general overview of the construct known as the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) (Paul, 2010, 2012; Paul & Lee, 2010; Paul & Wang, 2012) and establish the tenor for the remainder of this book. The QSH is a descriptive, testable hypothesis (or construct), with micro and macro components (subconstructs), and is based on a synthesis of empirical and reason-integrative research

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2 English Language Development

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pp. 26-53

Historically, the development of language in children and adolescents who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) has been one of the most, if not the most, contentious educational issue (Moores, 2001, 2010; Paul, 2009; Quigley & Kretschmer, 1982). More than 30 years ago, King (1981) asserted that the question of language acquisition is actually a bipartite question: (1) How do deaf children learn language? and (2) How...

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3 English Language Learners

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pp. 54-78

The U.S. Department of Education report, the Condition of Education 2011 (Aud et al., 2011), estimates that, in 2009, approximately 21% (or 11.2 million) of children ages 5 to 17 years spoke a language other than English at home (i.e., language minority learners), and 5% (or 2.7 million) spoke English with difficulty (i.e., English language learners [ELLs]; see a review of the different terms associated with ELLs in Paul &...

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4 English Literacy Development

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pp. 79-124

English language development is our first and by far our most important intellectual accomplishment. English literacy development is our second. The development of English literacy is a lifelong intellectual process of gaining meaning from written language. The key to literacy in English is learning to read, a complex process that begins with through-the-air language proficiency and culminates in deep understanding and...

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5 Research on Children With Language/Literacy Difficulties

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pp. 125-150

As reiterated throughout this book, literacy is a language-based skill, and thus difficulties in language development can negatively affect literacy achievement. Numerous studies have supported the correlation between language difficulties and literacy difficulties (e.g., Bishop & Adams, 1990; Catts, 1993; Catts, Fey, Tomblin, & Zhang, 2002; Hall & Tomblin, 1978; Silva, McGee, & Williams, 1987; Tomblin et al., 1997). It...

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6 Evidence- and Reason-Based Instructional Strategies

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pp. 151-187

Intervention studies are a form of applied research; they examine the effectiveness of a specific instructional approach, method, program, or set of activities on students’ learning. Researchers conduct intervention studies to establish direct links between the intervention and anticipated growth in students’ knowledge and skills. In this chapter, we review literacy-focused intervention studies that have been conducted recently...

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7 Understanding and Conducting Research on Language and Literacy

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pp. 188-225

Understanding how to teach or develop English language or literacy in children and adolescents who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) has been challenging, and frustrating, for scholars, researchers, and educators. From one perspective, we know more about the natures of English language and literacy than we do about the manner in which to facilitate their growth in individuals (see discussion in Paul,...

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8 From the Past to the Future: Reflections on the QSH

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pp. 226-244

In this chapter are two essays in which David Bloome, Kouider Mokhtari, and Carla Reichard reflect on the merits of the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH). The contributors are well known in their respective fields and evaluate the QSH with respect to their own epistemological and research paradigms. We respond to selective remarks in these essays in Chapter 9....

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9 Conclusion: Reflections and Directions

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pp. 245-260

The qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) is not a novel construct—whether it (as well as other developmental similarity models) qualifies as one of the “intelligent thoughts” that should be reexamined is left to the judgment of our readers and the community of researchers and theorists invested in exploring the development of English language and English literacy. To minimize misinterpretations and to obtain an...

About the Authors

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pp. 261-262

Index

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pp. 263-266


E-ISBN-13: 9781563685859
E-ISBN-10: 156368585X
Print-ISBN-13: 9781563685842
Print-ISBN-10: 1563685841

Page Count: 336
Illustrations: 3 figures, 10 tables
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: Deaf Education

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Hearing impaired -- Education -- United States.
  • Deaf children -- Education -- United States.
  • Deaf children -- United States -- Language.
  • English language -- Study and teaching.
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