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Total Communication

Structure and Strategy

Lionel Evans

Publication Year: 1982

Total communication, a method utilizing a combination of visual and auditory cues in an attempt to maximize comprehension, has long been a focus of debate by the deaf community, families of deaf children, and education professionals. For perhaps the first time, this book documents total communication’s historical and philosophical roots and analyzes the strengths and limitations of total communication's elemental parts and their salient linguistic properties.

Published by: Gallaudet University Press

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. v-vi


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pp. vii-viii

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pp. ix-x

The growth of total communication as a major concept in the education of deaf children has produced some important questions about its nature, scope, and purpose. Is total communication a completely new philosophy, or is it a reformulation of previous ideas in the light of modern knowledge ...

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pp. xi

The writing of this book was possible by virtue of my holding the Powrie V. Doctor Chair of Deaf Studies at Gallaudet College for the academic year of 1980-81. I am especially grateful to Dr. Doin Hicks for his advice on all aspects of the project and his continuous support in carrying ...

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pp. 1-23

Total communication has emerged as a liberal approach to the use of both oral and manual means of communication for deaf people, but history records earlier attempts to teach deaf children through combined methods. Indeed, some of these practices may be seen as antecedents of the ...

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pp. 24-30

The previous chapter looked at the origin of the contemporary philosophy of total communication as an educational movement. It considered the research evidence which suggested the need for change, both the negative evidence of results of the pure oral approach and the positive evidence ...

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pp. 31-43

In order to understand the nature and scope of total communication, it is necessary first to understand its constituent parts. In order to assess the value of the different media, it is necessary to know something of their linguistic qualities. It should be asked whether they are themselves ...

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pp. 44-55

Lipreading, as the receptive medium in oral communication, is a means by which deaf people may receive and understand the normal speech of hearing people. The other means of "live" visual communication of language available to deaf people involve systems which require special ...

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pp. 56-77

In signing, gestures and movements of the hands, known as signs, carry linguistic information much as words do in spoken language. This chapter considers some linguistic and psychological aspects of signing, with particular interest in those features which have relevance to the total ...

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pp. 78-89

The preceding chapters dealt with the main media for visual reception of language. Having looked at speech and lipreading, fingerspelling, and signing-considering them as independent means of communication-attention will now be focused on the way in which these media, together ...

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pp. 90-109

Lipreading, fingerspelling, and signing have been described as the manual-visual means of transmitting language. These, together with residual hearing and lipreading, are the elements of simultaneous communicationj with reading and writing, they comprise the main means for systematic ...

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pp. 110-120

Evidence has been reviewed to suggest that, for people with severe deafness which precludes understanding speech through hearing alone, the optimal combination of media for communicating language will be drawn, according to individual needs and changing situations, from amplified ...


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pp. 121-122


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pp. 123-124


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pp. 125-152


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pp. 153-156


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pp. 157-160

E-ISBN-13: 9781563685194
E-ISBN-10: 1563685191
Print-ISBN-13: 9780913580752
Print-ISBN-10: 0913580759

Page Count: 176
Illustrations: 28 figures
Publication Year: 1982