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Accountability-Based Reform

The Impact on Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Stephanie W. Cawthon Psychology Program, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas, Austin, TX.

Publication Year: 2011

For years, school reform efforts targeted either students in regular education or those with special needs, but not both. As a result of the No Child Left Behind legislation (NCLB) and its focus on accountability, administrators established policies that would integrate the needs of students who previously were served under separate frameworks. Using the NCLB structure as a starting point, Stephanie W. Cawthon’s new book Accountability-Based Reforms: The Impact on Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students discusses key assumptions behind accountability reforms. She specifically examines how elements of these reforms affect students who are deaf or hard of hearing, their teachers, and their families. Cawthon begins by providing a brief introduction to the deaf education context, offering detailed information on student demographics, settings, and academic outcomes for deaf students. She then outlines the evolution of accountability-based education reforms, following with a chapter on content standards, assessment accommodations, accountability as sanctions, and students with disabilities. The remaining chapters in Accountability-Based Reforms closely examine educational professionals, accountability, and students who are deaf or hard of hearing; school choice policies and parents; and deaf education and measures of success. Each chapter presents an overview of an important component of accountability reform, available research, and how it has been implemented in the United States. These chapters also offer recommendations for future action by educators, parents, researchers, and education policymakers.

Published by: Gallaudet University Press

Series: Deaf Education Series

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. vii

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pp. ix-xii

The initial impetus for this book began during my graduate studies in Educational Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. My personal and professional background is grounded in language and literacy development for students who...

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1. The Deaf Education Context

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pp. 1-22

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the context of deaf education in an effort to better understand how accountability reforms may affect students who are deaf or hard of hearing. One debated assumption about public primary and secondary...

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2. What Is an Accountability Reform?

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pp. 23-40

The ideas that shape current accountability reform in the United States have been developing for quite some time, evolving through federal policies and legislation over the course of the last 50 years (Cross, 2004). When assessing the effectiveness...

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3. What Does Accountability Measure?

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pp. 41-53

Whereas Chapter 2 gave an overview of the main components of accountability reform, this chapter focuses specifically on the construct of content standards. Curricular standards drive both the content of instruction and, important...

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4. How Do We Measure Progress?

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pp. 54-68

If one word captures the heart of recent accountability reforms, especially in how NCLB is experienced by teachers, students, and parents, it is assessment (Toppo, 2007). More students now participate in more state standardized...

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5. Accountability and Schools

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pp. 69-92

Schools are the “units of accountability” within the structure of accountability reform. In other words, test score reports and evaluation of success or failure begins primarily at the school level, not at the teacher or student level. Although...

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6. Educational Professionals and Accountability Reform

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pp. 93-112

Chapter 6 turns to a different area of accountability reforms, those components that relate to educator skills and qualifications. Compared with curriculum standards and student assessment, measurement of teacher performance is a relatively new aspect...

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7. Accountability to Parents

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pp. 113-131

Accountability reform for education is, in a general sense, undertaken on behalf of the taxpaying public. Elementary and secondary education is funded largely through public revenue, and as stakeholders, taxpayers are interested in the efficacy...

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8. Accountability and Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

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pp. 132-142

Chapter 8 marks the closure of this book with a discussion of how public education can be accountable to students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Accountability reform language tends to focus on who is being held accountable...


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pp. 143-168


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pp. 169-173

E-ISBN-13: 9781563684869
E-ISBN-10: 1563684861
Print-ISBN-13: 9781563684852
Print-ISBN-10: 1563684853

Page Count: 240
Illustrations: 3 tables, 8 figures
Publication Year: 2011

Series Title: Deaf Education Series