Deaf People Around the World
Educational and Social Perspectives
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: Gallaudet University Press
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The motivation for this book developed over a long period of time, and we attribute that lengthy development to several factors. First among them has been the opportunity for us, both together and separately, to visit a wide range of countries to participate in and present at conferences, observe in schools, visit universities, discuss research, conduct workshops, and visit clubs ...
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We owe a debt to so many people over the course of our careers that it is impossible to enumerate everyone. We want to acknowledge the contributions of the authors who contributed to this text. Their expertise and commitment will be obvious to the reader. Each one faced a difficult task in condensing large amounts of information into very limited space, and we ...
Part 1: Asia/Pacific
Deaf Education and the Deaf Community in Australia
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Australia is the only island continent. Its indigenous people have lived here for at least 40,000 years, having traveled from Asia via land and water crossings. It is known that they use signs during periods when speech is tabooed (e.g., during mourning for women and initiation for men) and also while hunting (Kendon, 1988). It is known that in some ...
Deaf Education and the Deaf Community in China: Past, Present, and Future
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Deaf and hearing American and Chinese professionals have been working together since 1999 to empower change in China’s system of deaf education. Through these years of collaboration and partnership, an expanding and empowering network that is built on guanxi has been evolving. Guanxi, a key concept in Chinese culture, characterizes several societal ...
Postsecondary Education for Deaf People in China
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China is a developing country with a large population, moving very quickly on many fronts to become a modern, international player in the global marketplace (Dahlman & Aubert, 2001). This growth has occurred within the context of a progressively more market-driven economy with a strong central government. In present-day China, education at all levels has ...
Deafness in India
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India is the world’s largest democracy, with a population of more than 1 billion people. The country accounts for 2.4% of the world’s land area but has 16% of the world’s population and is the largest country in the Indian subcontinent. India is the home of one of the oldest civilizations in the world and is diverse ethnically (72% Aryan, 25% Dravidian, 3% ...
Educating Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in New Zealand
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New Zealand, also known as Aotearoa, Land of the Long White Cloud, is a country of 4 million people, with a deaf and hard of hearing population of approximately 6,000.
Deaf Education in South Korea
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This chapter presents an overview on the education of Deaf and hard of hearing students in Singapore. Singapore is an island city-state and the smallest country in Southeast Asia. It is located on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of the Indonesian Riau Islands. Singapore is made up of not only one main island but ...
Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Singapore
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South Korea is located in northern East Asia, bounded by North Korea to north, Japan to the east and south, and China to the west. South Korea has indicated remarkable economic growth during the past few decades; however, because of the financial crisis in 1997, its economic growth has slowed. The country has a population of 48.4 million (2007 figure), and ...
Part 2: Middle East and Africa
Deaf Education in Israel
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The state of Israel received its independence 60 years ago, in 1948. Israel is a small country on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea with an area of about 20,000 square kilometers. The population of 7.3 million people includes many Jewish immigrants who moved to Israel from all around the world. New immigrants came to Israel mainly from Eastern ...
Perspectives and Reviews on Deafness in the State of Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates
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This chapter provides information, analyses, and insights on deafness in the State of Kuwait and in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It represents the first time such an approach has been taken in a comprehensive manner. Because of the extreme shortage of documents to prepare this chapter, the author relied on his personal experiences, a few published works ...
Deafness in Sub-Saharan Africa
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Often reffered to as the “rainbow nation” (Tutu, quoted in Allen, 2006, p. 391), South Africa has a complex history of colonial immigration and rule; local turmoil for power; apartheid; and most recently, democracy for all. The history of Deaf people in South Africa closely mirrors that of the country, where segregation based on race and culture affected both the ...
Education of the Deaf in South Africa
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Deaf education in sub-Saharan Africa originated in the 19th century, primarily through efforts by hearing European missionaries who typically followed their homelands’ oral-only practices. But education became available to only a fraction of the deaf population. In the 20th century, Andrew Foster, a deaf African American missionary and Gallaudet University’s ...
Part 3: Europe
The Flemish Deaf Community and the Challenge of Breaking Through Barriers in the Educational System
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Flanders has known a strong oral tradition. It has been only been 10 years since the first and still only deaf school established a bilingual-bicultural program. The establishment of the program is illustrative for the emancipation process and activism of the Flemish deaf community, leading to the recognition of Flemish Sign Language (Vlaamse Gebarentaal, VGT) ...
Trends and Developments in Deaf Education in Germany
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The education of deaf people in Germany is widely associated with the oral, or so-called “German method,” which focuses primarily on the use of spoken language, excluding the use of sign language and marginalizing written language as means of communication in education. The term German method came into use during the 19th century in reference to the ...
The Education of Deaf Children in Greece
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In the works of Greek philosophers, one can find useful information about the society’s attitudes toward the disabled and about the status of deaf people during ancient times. Herodotus’ works on the Muses are considered to be some of the oldest sources written about deaf people. His description of the attitude of King Kroisos of Lydia when he found out that he could not ...
The Deaf Community in Spain: Historical Perspectives, Educational Opportunities, and the Consolidation of Sign Language
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The history of education of the deaf in Spain is one of extremes. On the one hand, it has been seen as a model for educational innovation (during the 16th and 17th centuries), and on the other hand, it has been seen as lacking in educational initiative (18th and 19th centuries and part of the 20th century). Today’s situation represents an intermediate point, one ...
The Situation for the Deaf in Sweden
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One of the human rights, stated by the United Nations, is to have access to a language. The Convention on the Rights of the Child declares that the child’s right to a language is to be especially attended to (United Nations, 1989). In December 1993, the United Nations General Assembly approved standard rules to ensure full participation and equality for people ...
Deaf Education and the Status of Deaf People in the United Kingdom
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The advances in understanding and the real progress in social terms for the Deaf community over the last 30 years offer a range of possible themes for a chapter on the topic of Deaf people in the United Kingdom (UK). We could celebrate the research on British Sign Language (BSL) beginning in the mid-1970s, coming to fruition at last in 2003 when sign ...
Part 4: North and South America
Deafness: Educational-Historical Aspects in the Brazilian Context
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Brazil is one of the largest and most extensively populated countries in the world. Its cities of S
Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Learners in Canada
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Canada is the second largest country in the world, spanning six time zones from the Atlantic to the Pacific and stretching 4,800 kilometers from north to south. The southern portion consists of 10 provinces, and the northern region is divided into three territories. For such a large country, the population is small, slightly less than 34 million people, with most ...
The Situation of Deaf Education in Chile
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The history of deaf education in Chile goes back over 150 years (see Caiceo, 1988). Chile was the first Latin American country to open a residential school for deaf children: the Escuela de Sordo-Mudos (School for the Deaf and Mute), founded in the city of Santiago on October 27, 1852, during the presidency of Manuel Montt. Eliseo Schieroni, a former teacher of the ...
Deafness in Jamaica
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Jamaica is an island nation with a population somewhat smaller than 3,000,000 located in the Caribbean Sea south of Cuba, west of Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), and northeast of Central America. The original Arawak people became extinct in the years that followed Columbus’s landing in 1494 and Spain’s subsequent claim to and settlement of ...
The United States of America: Deaf People in a Pluralistic Society
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The United States is a federated republic of 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and several territories. The 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia stretch across North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Geographically, it is the third largest country in the world, after Russia and Canada. With ...
Part 5: International Developments
Globaleyes: A Partnership Between the Nippon Foundation and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf at Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
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In 2001, The Nippon Foundation of Japan and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) came together and constructed a vision— a global network to improve the postsecondary education of people who are deaf. Recognizing that education, government, business, and industry are confronted with myriad challenges ...
Inclusion in an International Context
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The word inclusion in an educational context is itself somewhat of a paradox. It is frequently confounded by our concepts of earlier processes such as mainstreaming and integration. Although authors may disagree on the exact definition of each term and the distinctions among them, the following explanations reflect this writer’s understanding of the consensus ...
International Committee of Sports for the Deaf and Deaflympics
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Historically sports have provided a rewarding reason for people from different countries to gather in unity. The same holds true for deaf people all over the world. The Deaflympics and World Deaf Championships are of special importance to the Deaf community in that they provide role models and are a source of social cohesion, perhaps especially for those ...
The World Federation of the Deaf
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The World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) is one of the oldest, if not in fact the oldest, international organization focused on advocacy of, for, by, and with Deaf people. The headquarters and legal seat of the WFD is currently in Helsinki, Finland. As of 2008, the WFD consists of 128 national organizations of the Deaf from six continents of the world; its ...
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A book of this nature addresses enormous complexity. It presents and analyzes social, political, and educational realities that deaf people around the world encounter in diverse societies at various stages of development and evolution and while operating under quite diverse philosophies. The authors of the different chapters have presented their information clearly and ...
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Page Count: 444
Illustrations: 24 tables, 4 figures, 3 photographs
Publication Year: 2009