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The Deaf Way II Reader

Perspectives from the Second International Conference on Deaf Culture

Harvey Goodstein, Editor

Publication Year: 2006

This extraordinary volume features the very best of the scholarship presented at the Deaf Way II, the second international Deaf gathering in 2002 in Washington, DC. More than 100 contributors from countries as far afield as Brazil, Cyprus, Denmark, Great Britain, Greece, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, Spain, and Thailand share their research on a broad spectrum of disciplines joined together by the common Deaf experience. The Deaf Way II Reader addresses every facet of the human condition from a Deaf World perspective in 65 unique studies, including all plenary addresses. Editor Harvey Goodstein has organized these articles in 12 parts: Advocacy and Community Development; Economics; Education; Family; Health and Mental Health; History; Language and Culture; Literature; Recreation, Leisure, and Sports; Sign Language and Interpreting; Technology; and Youth. Each treatise examines one aspect of the deaf experience within a particular community or country. Together, they reveal how deaf people throughout the world live, study, work, and play, as well as how they relate to their families and the dominant hearing societies in which most of them reside. The Deaf Way II Reader provides a fascinating compendium of current knowledge that can, in the words of Deaf Way II host I. King Jordan, “help make the world a better place for deaf people.”

Published by: Gallaudet University Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. v-ix


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pp. xi-xii


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pp. xiii-xxii

PART ONE: Advocacy and Community Development

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Changing the World—Together

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pp. 3-9

Iknow a story about an eight-year-old child, a little boy, who had an experience with his parents, his father in particular. He had a deaf mother and a deaf father, and a brother and sister who were also deaf. This eight-year-old boy loved his father very much and hoped some day he would be able to be just like his father and be a farmer. ...

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Our Inalienable Rights: Global Realization of the Human Rights of Deaf People

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pp. 10-16

The topic of my presentation is “Human rights are our inalienable rights.” We need to discuss how to realize human rights for each and every Deaf person in the world. I have listed three themes in my presentation: (1) human rights belong to everyone; (2) human rights documents can ensure Deaf people’s equal ...

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Are Deaf People in Developing Countries Advocating on a Political Level? A South African Perspective

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pp. 17-20

For many years, our history in South Africa was dominated by apartheid, a social and political policy of racial segregation and discrimination enforced by white minority governments in our country from 1948 to 1994. The laws and policies of apartheid had a tremendous negative affect on our country ...

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World Deaf Leadership Project Enhances Deaf Empowerment in Thailand

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pp. 21-25

I was born and grew up in Phayao, a northern province of Thailand. Before I participated in the World Deaf Leadership (WDL) project, I was a seamstress. The National Association of the Deaf—Thailand announced that Ratchasuda College was accepting applications for admission in an eighteen-month Thai Sign Language Teachers’ ...

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Communication, Sign Language, Culture, and Education as Human Rights

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pp. 26-31

I am the executive director of the head office of the Japanese Federation of the Deaf. The Japanese Federation of the Deaf is a long-established organization whose history dates back fifty years. As you know, there are countries that do not consider the needs and rights of Deaf people. Governments consisting of hearing people ...

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Hands across the Pacific: Partnerships for Progress

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pp. 32-37

Hands across the Pacific: Partnerships for Progress is a collaborative project involving the American Sign Language/ Interpreter Education Program, the Gallaudet University Regional Center for the Pacific at the University of Hawai‘i- Kapi‘olani Community College, the University Center for Excellence (UCE) ...

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Partnership in the Irish Deaf Community

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pp. 38-41

A well-established Deaf community is based on the strength of its leadership and unity. Effective advocacy reinforces the fundamental principle of sign language and Deaf culture. This can be achieved through a partnership among the wide variety of people within the Deaf community. The absence of partnership could ...

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Deaf Empowerment in Greece

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pp. 42-47

Only a few parents of Deaf children can communicate effectively with their child, and Deaf children have limited contacts with other Deaf people when they are young. They first come in contact with each other at school. Many Deaf adolescents are communicatively isolated at home, at school, and in the neighborhood (Foster 1989). ...

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A Model in Accessing the Community for Deaf-Blind Adults

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pp. 48-51

Can you imagine relying on others to assist you with simple tasks such as food shopping, reading mail, or explaining to you what is happening at a basketball game? As Deaf, hard of hearing, or hearing and sighted individuals, we freely access transportation, navigate our surroundings, make phone calls, ...

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Improving Development Assistance from American Organizations to Deaf Communities in Developing Countries

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pp. 52-58

In this essay, I discuss how American organizations, such as church groups, nongovernmental organizations, and American federal agencies, offer assistance to Deaf people in developing countries. I share how and why I think we need to discuss this topic and propose what I believe Deaf organizations in developing countries ...

PART TWO : Economics

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How We Can Better the Lives of Deaf People in Developing Countries through Business Investment

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pp. 61-63

My first point is that we need to get together in form of a group to look at how we can start making more investments in different countries that have not grown to the status of other countries. For example, Nigeria, like several other African countries, is a developing country. We want to find solutions to ...

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Successful Entrepreneurship in Third World Countries

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pp. 64-65

Iwas born in Assam, India, and received my early education there. I came to Gallaudet University in 1986 and received a bachelor of science degree in 1989. When I returned to India from the United States, I was shocked to see how discrimination was widely practiced against deaf people at all levels in many areas, ...

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Successful Strategies for Deaf Business Professionals

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pp. 66-72

EMILIA: Many of us want to know how to set up a business. Some of us have tried and failed, and so we would like to hear from people who have successfully set up businesses. My name is Emilia Chukwuma, and I teach business as well as accounting courses at Gallaudet University. I next introduce Ron Sutcliffe, who is the moderator ...

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A Comparative Investigation of Entrepreneurship among Deaf Populations in Developed and Developing Countries

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pp. 73-78

This study investigates, at an exploratory level, entrepreneurship activities among deaf populations in developed and developing countries, with emphasis on environmental barriers to entrepreneurship and how deaf entrepreneurs cope with and overcome the barriers. Specific sources of environmental adversity ...

PART THREE : Education

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Deaf Education: Whose “Way” Is It?

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pp. 81-86

Deaf education: whose way is it? That is the question. Is that a political question? Or is it a moral question? There are a variety of ways to view the question. I focus on Deaf education as a civil right to be given to deaf children. On September 11, two planes crashed into the World Trade Center in New York City. ...

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Signs of Literacy: Naturalistic Inquiry into ASL/English Bilingualism at Home and at School

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pp. 87-95

The Signs of Literacy research team is an interdisciplinary team of Deaf and hearing researchers and teacher-researchers at Gallaudet University.1 Our ethnographic studies seek to understand the sociocultural context of ASL/English bilingual Deaf education in the United States as well as Deaf children’s individual ...

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Deafness and the Pedagogy of Difference

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pp. 96-99

More than a concern for our time, education of deaf people is a crisis that demands innovation in education. Research has been conducted on the struggles of Rio Grande do Sul deaf community, currently organized in FENEIS.1 With the research, sponsored by FAPERGS and developed in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul State, ...

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American Sign Language Curriculum for First-Language ASL Students

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pp. 100-106

The past two decades have seen a change from the monolingual model to the bilingual-bicultural model in the education of Deaf students in Ontario, Canada. In response to the Deaf Ontario Now Rally 1988 and the 1989 Ontario Review of Provincial Programs for the Deaf, the bilingual-bicultural policy ...

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Asian Deaf Perspectives on Deaf Education

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pp. 107-113

This essay presents an exploratory study of Asian Deaf perspectives of Deaf education. The aim of this essay is to explore, investigate, and share Asian Deaf perspectives of Deaf education on the areas of literature review, demographics, common issues, and recommendations for improving the quality of ...

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Academic Writing of Deaf Students in Higher Education: Processing and Improving

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pp. 114-118

In this essay, I discuss some experience from my work with deaf students in Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf, at the Department of Scandinavian Languages, Stockholm University, particularly processing academic writing and improving their writing skills. Our goals and methods for improving deaf students’ ...

PART FOUR : Family

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Deaf Couples and Adoption

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pp. 121-126

Some people have asked me how a deaf couple can qualify to adopt children. In some countries, deaf people are forbidden to adopt, so we feel lucky. I begin by discussing our experience with the adoption process in the Norwegian system. Each county has a different adoption system. First, we applied through the adoption ...

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The Psychological Support Offered to “New Parents” of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children in Cyprus

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pp. 127-133

All families with deaf or hard of hearing children will require, at one time or another, relevant information on hearing loss and guidance for their children’s educational, communicative, and/or career options, which should be accurate and practical. Most parents will also need some form of psychological support ...

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The Missing Link in Literacy Development—A Parent’s Perspective

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pp. 134-140

Because of the nature of Deafness and its implications, Deaf children are often severely hampered in their acquisition of literacy skills. There are a number of factors that inhibit language development in Deaf children. The most important are late diagnosis of a hearing disorder, inability of parents to accept to accept ...

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The Silent Garden: Reaching Out to Your Deaf Children

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pp. 141-144

Hearing parents of a newborn deaf child—indeed, hearing people generally—are unaware of the diversity within the deaf and hard of hearing population, including the amount of hearing loss a deaf or hard of hearing person has, the age at which the loss occurred, and the type of hearing loss, ...

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Deaf Parents with Teenage Children

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pp. 145-151

A few years ago, I did a four-year national study on people like myself: adult hearing children of deaf parents throughout the United States. Increasingly, in the United States as well as several other countries, we are often referred to as “codas.” Data for that study included life histories and interviews with 150 men and women ...

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Deaf Parents with Hearing Children: A CODA Symposium

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pp. 152-160

In the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, we were called HCDPs, hearing children with deaf parents. In 1983, Millie Brother of Santa Barbara, California, distributed the first newsletter of the new organization CODA International (Children of Deaf Adults). Our annual international conferences began in 1986 and ...

PART FIVE: Health and Mental Health

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Mental Health and Deafness Go Global

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pp. 163-165

The United States is the first country in the world to make mental health services available to its deaf population. Most deafness professionals would agree that the New York State Psychiatric Institute in New York City, with its Mental Health Project for the Deaf, was the very first provider of mental health ...

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Mental Health Services in the Philippines: A Deaf Perspective

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pp. 166-171

My beloved country, the Philippines, is a third world or developing country in Asia. It has approximately 7,107 islands. There are three major islands: Luzon, Visaya, and Mindanao. It is the third-largest English-speaking country in the world. It has a rich history that combines Asian, European, and American influences. ...

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Cancer Awareness Project: Deaf Cancer Wise

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pp. 172-177

Deaf Connections is a charity based in Glasgow, Scotland, that provides a diverse range of services for Deaf people living in the west of Scotland. “Deaf Cancer Wise,” a cancer awareness project for Deaf people, is one of the projects run by Deaf Connections, and I discuss how the project began, its aims, ...

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AIDS and Deaf People: Health Service Delivery and Prevention for Deaf People by Deaf People

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pp. 178-180

Following an important meeting of Deaf people in Montreal organized by the Association des Bonnes Gens Sourds (ABGS) and the Comite Sida Aide Montreal (CSAM) to inform Deaf people about venereal diseases and AIDS, it became obvious that a permanent association was needed to provide the Deaf population with information ...

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Reconstructing Deafness: A Solution-Focused Approach to Mental Health

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pp. 181-186

Traditional psychotherapy with deaf and hard of hearing people has been hampered by adherence to two basic assumptions. First, many therapists believe that deafness represents a pathology that predisposes persons who are deaf or hard of hearing to various mental and emotional disorders. Such a premise underlies ...

PART SIX : History

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Russian Deaf Towns

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pp. 189-192

I describe a unique phenomenon that still determines the life of many Deaf Russians. I call it “unique” because I and my colleagues do not know whether things like it exist somewhere else. I know that there are similar places in Bulgaria, for example. The phenomenon is the following: in some big Russian cities or in their suburbs, ...

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Iranian Deaf Culture

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pp. 193-198

In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the officially announced literacy rate is 48 percent to 52 percent of the population. There are fifty deaf institutions, and twenty-six deaf institutions are in the capital, Tehran. There are only three high schools for deaf students in Iran, and they are in Tehran and Mashhad. There are sixty-nine languages ...

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Our Civil Rights Movements: A Guide for All

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pp. 199-204

To fully implement the deaf civil rights movement, it is important to look at the civil rights movements of other groups to understand their advocacy efforts and strategies so that we can copy successful advocacy strategies and learn from others’ mistakes. The earliest group was the National Association for the ...

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Houses out of Sand: Building a Deaf Community in Israel

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pp. 205-212

Israel was established as an independent state in 1948. A few years before, a Deaf club was established in 1944, named the Jewish Association for the Deaf and Dumb in Tel Aviv. In its early days, the association functioned as a community center, which housed a variety of social and cultural activities. ...

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The Status of Deaf People in Developing Countries

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pp. 213-216

This essay introduces the history of the Filipino Deaf people as a valuable record and model for young Deaf people. Many Filipino Deaf people achieved remarkable goals, but because these achievements were not recorded, they are not recognized as historical facts. I hope to recognize and record the history ...

PART SEVEN: Language and Culture

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The Domino Effect:Changing Values = Changing Language = New Styles of Training

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pp. 219-226

In the early 1970s there were 330 residential schools for Deaf students scattered throughout the United Kingdom. There are now only 34 such schools left, and often they enroll Deaf children who have disabilities. Nondisabled Deaf children, who would previously have been placed in Deaf schools, are now sent to mainstream ...

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How Is Asian Deaf Culture Different from American Deaf Culture?

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pp. 227-232

Although we have a relative wealth of documents in American Deaf culture that we have developed in the past three decades, we are acutely aware of how little knowledge we have of Asian Deaf culture at the moment. Before beginning the discussion in depth, we advise against using the term “the deaf” (Chough, 1978). ...

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Sign Language Use among Indigenous Populations

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pp. 233-240

Deaf people’s strong inclination to develop and acquire sign language can be traced through history and is evident worldwide. In addition to being some of the primary languages in Deaf communities, signed languages have been used by hearing indigenous communities around the world as alternatives to spoken languages. ...

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Onomatopoeia in British Sign Language? or, The Visuality/Sensation of Sound

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pp. 241-244

In texts written about British and other sign languages, there seems to be little or no reference to the way Deaf people represent sound in their languages. This is not surprising—Deaf people do not, of course, hear sound. Some may hear a little, but it is not in the way that hearing people understand the concept of sound. ...

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What Is Deafhood and Why Is It Important?

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pp. 245-250

I developed Deafhood as an English term to counter other negative English terms describing Deaf people. We already have our own signs that capture much of what might be seen as Deafhood, which we use in our own discourses. However, to take on and change the discourses of those who have colonized us, we need a term that interrupts ...

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Deaf View Image Art: A Manifesto Revisited

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pp. 251-264

It was spring of 1972 when I had arranged for an exhibit of my work, and it was the first time an exhibit was specifically arranged to express the Deaf experience. After the exhibit, it was evident that people were totally unprepared with what they saw at the exhibit. They were actually quite shocked and angry and felt ...

PART EIGHT Literature

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Crossing the Divide: Helen Keller and Yvonne Pitrois Dialogue about Vaudeville

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pp. 267-271

How do people living with a difference most effectively cross the cultural divide and explain themselves to mainstream society? This is a central question raised by Yvonne Pitrois in her biography of Helen Keller titled Une nuit rayonnante: Helen Keller (A Shining Night: Helen Keller) and responded to by Helen Keller in a fascinating ...

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The Poetics and Politics of Deaf American Literature

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pp. 272-277

Colloquially termed “deaf lit,” Deaf American literature is an evolving, polyglossic body of works comprising a wide range of vernacular (signed), written, and hybrid forms (those exhibiting both vernacular and written features). Deaf American literature therefore encompasses the following forms and genres: American Sign Language ...

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ASL Literacy in Early Childhood: ASL Poetry

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pp. 278-283

We know that literature exposure and development in young children is critical for their literacy development in one or more languages. To date, there has been no research on the early American Sign Language (ASL) literacy development of young Deaf children. Through my experience working ...

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Conceptual “Rhymes” in Sign Language Poetry

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pp. 284-290

The rich iconicity of American Sign Language (ASL) deeply influences the poetry that signers create (Taub, 2001). Poets make art from language by creating patterns of meaning (e.g., repeated images or metaphors) and patterns of form (e.g., repetition of phonetic material). In spoken languages, these levels are largely ...

PART NINE : Recreation, Leisure, And Sport

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The Role of Deaf Sport in Developing and Maintaining Deaf Identity in Great Britain

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pp. 293-300

This essay is based on the provisional results of the latter two of three studies, named study 2 and study 3, performed for my doctoral dissertation, “The Role of Deaf Sport in Developing and Maintaining Deaf Identity,” which focused on Great Britain (Eickman 2004).1 ...

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Deaf Women and Sports in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

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pp. 301-304

The United Nations statistics estimate that there are more than 10 million deaf people across the globe. Though the incidence of deafness is more pronounced among males than female, there is a growing general population of deaf women. Nigeria is assumed to harbor one of the largest deaf populations on the African ...

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The D/deaf Community, Leisure, and Public Recreation

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pp. 305-312

The term leisure, when used in everyday conversation, usually means “free time” or “relaxing and fun activities.” Although these definitions are useful, they do not fully explain the important role leisure plays in our collective and individual lives. Most adults give little conscious thought to leisure either as a concept or as a critical ...

PART TEN: Sign Language And Interpreting

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How to Be All Things to All People: ASK!

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pp. 315-321

Interpreters face the dilemma of having conflicting sets of expectations from the consumers they serve. Deaf consumers consider attitude the most important of the interpreter’s characteristics. However, hearing consumers feel knowledge and skills are the most significant characteristics. Interpreters report feeling obligated to choose ...

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Variation in Sign Languages: Methodological Issues and Research Findings

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pp. 322-335

Sociolinguistic research on signed languages, although still in its infancy, has produced a considerable body of knowledge over the past twenty years, providing unique insight into the complex structures and uses of signed languages throughout the world. As with spoken languages, sociolinguistic inquiry has described ...

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Linguistic Development and Deaf Identity in Rural Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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pp. 336-339

I present results that come from a series of interventions we did that began in 1999 in an area of villages where the population varies between twenty-five thousand and thirty thousand inhabitants. The main goal of those projects was to improve deaf people’s knowledge of the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS) in these small country villages. ...

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The Role of the U.S. Court Interpreter in the New Millennium

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pp. 340-343

In some quarters of this country, there is a movement afoot to create a monolingual society through the establishment of English-only statutes. Nevertheless, the United States boasts a long history of respecting the multilingual needs of litigants by providing language interpreters in legal cases. Many of the law cases reported in the United States ...

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Narratives in Tactile Sign Language

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pp. 344-348

In visual signing, eye gaze movement and head movement are used as perspective markers. However, many people who have Usher syndrome 1 use tactile sign language. What do they do when they describe something without nonmanual marking of perspective? For example, a deafblind signer describes a skiing trip involving three people. ...

PART ELEVEN: Technology

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Genetics: A Future Peril Facing the Global Deaf Community

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pp. 351-356

In the summer of 2001, I had the privilege of meeting the founder of the Porto Association of Deaf People, located in northern Portugal. I asked him, a living piece of Deaf history, what he thought was the biggest change in the Deaf community over the past fifty years. He thought for a moment and then replied, ...

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Making Ourselves Heard: The Promise of No-Barriers Communication

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pp. 357-362

Thirteen years ago Deaf Way, the first Deaf Way conference, helped pave the way for self-advocacy and working with technologists and business to make known the needs of the disability community. Here we are again at this amazing conference, thirteen years later, reflecting on our accomplishments and continuing our collaboration. ...

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The Dilemma of Pediatric Cochlear Implants

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pp. 363-369

During the last few decades of the twentieth century, the topic of cochlear implants (CIs) emerged as one of the most divisive issues among deaf and hard of hearing people, educators, parents of deaf children, and others concerned about the welfare and future of deaf people and the deaf community. ...

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The Impact of Genetics Research on the Deaf Community

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pp. 370-375

We discuss recent developments in genetics and the future effects of this research on the deaf community, including genetic technology and its implications for the deaf community. The more knowledge that members of the deaf community have about genetic issues, the better the community is ...

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WISDOM: Wireless Information Services for Deaf People on the Move

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pp. 376-379

Wireless multimedia developments offer great opportunities for better accessibility to communication and information for deaf users. A European project called WISDOM is developing mobile terminals and services specifically aimed at deaf people’s needs. Figure 1 shows a WISDOM terminal. ...

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Telecommunications Access: An American Civil Right

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pp. 380-385

Telecommunications access in America has changed dramatically over the past decade. Much of this is due to new and innovative technologies, including e-mail, the Internet, and paging services, but much is also the result of new federal laws specifically designed to ensure telecommunications access for people with ...

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Accessible Educational Media: Research, Development, and Standards

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pp. 386-390

The CPB/WGBH National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM; http://ncam.wgbh.org) is a research and development facility dedicated to the issues of media technology for people with disabilities in their homes, schools, workplaces, and communities. It is part of the Media Access Group at Boston public broadcaster ...


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Climbing the Seven Summits: A Deaf Woman’s Dream

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pp. 393-397

When I was young, my family lived in an old house that was built between 1915 and 1919 in Tempe, Arizona, next to a church on one side and the Arizona State University on the other, all on the same block. The house is no longer there. But when I was two years old, my mother let me out of the house one day to play in the yard. ...

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What Makes a Good Deaf Leadership Camp in Germany, Thailand, and the United States?

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pp. 398-404

DAN: Each of us will take turns back and forth several times, giving short presentations on different topics relative to our three youth camps, but we also include discussion on the following three questions: First, why are youth camps important? Second, what do the programs include in each of our camps? ...

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A National Organization of Deaf-Blind Youths

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pp. 405-409

EVA: DBU is probably the only national organization of deaf-blind youth in the world with its own board and its own governmental support, aside from some smaller or local groups in other countries. Only people who are between seven and thirty years old and are deaf-blind, that is, have both visual and hearing impairments, ...

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The Past, Present, and Future of Deaf Youth in Russia

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pp. 410-412

Nonprofit organizations for deaf youth play major roles in the creation and development of Deaf youth culture and help protect rights and interests of Russian youth with hearing losses. They have difficult enough periods in personal and professional development. Their youth is a time of uncertainty about their status ...

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Vital Self-Determination of Deaf Youth in Russia in Conditions of Social Instability

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pp. 414-416

The dynamically varying social conditions require developing the qualities of initiative and independence in our youth. The changing cultural-historical inheritance puts new fundamental problems before education. If in the past, the basic task of school was to transfer the cultural experience as a system of knowledge ...


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pp. 417-418


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pp. 419-423

E-ISBN-13: 9781563683756
E-ISBN-10: 156368375X
Print-ISBN-13: 9781563682940
Print-ISBN-10: 156368294X

Page Count: 446
Illustrations: 17 tables, 14 figures, 21 photographs
Publication Year: 2006