From Integration to Inclusion
A History of Special Education in the 20th Century
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: Gallaudet University Press
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This text is designed as a comprehensive history of the field that focuses chiefly on events in the 20th century. The key hallmarks of the book are its retrospective overview of the field of special education, a critical assessment of past progress and reform, and an analysis of the theoretical diversity within the discipline. The text accomplishes...
Chapter 1 / Revisiting the 19th Century
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Difference is inevitable in a community of people. Although difference is constituted in complex ways by varying cultural configurations, the existence of a scale of prestigious and shameful differences seems to be a universal feature of social life. Different societies and cultures have looked along the range of human behavior from normal to abnormal and...
Chapter 2 / Changing Directions
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In the first 3 or 4 decades of the 19th century, the American population was small, rural, and relative homogeneous. Rural life bred a traditionalism that translated into the acceptance of a fairly common set of values. Occupationally, people were bound to nature’s cycles. By the middle...
Chapter 3 / The Politics of Biology
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Social and political problems beset North America as it entered the 20th century. These seemingly unresolvable and mounting issues were not novel. Although faith in the progress of America produced a conservative, well-satisfied nation in the late-19th century, it was clear that progress brought a particular set of problems.As the movement toward urbanization and industrialization accelerated, ...
Chapter 4 / The Development of Special Classes
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Throughout the 19th century, institutions formed the chief setting for the training and instruction of students who were deaf, blind, or mentally retarded. Although the clergy was conspicuous in the early genesis and development of these institutions, by mid-century, the institutions had clearly withdrawn from their historic Protestant alliance. As the 19th drew to a close, a complex of...
Chapter 5 / Turning Points
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It is one of the quirks in the chronological development of special education that certain decades are definable as turning points—benchmarks when an unprecedented array of changes and reforms occur. The 1960s stand out as a beacon of change, an optimistic period of American history, a time when both the desire and the finances existed to promote social and educational changes. Because special...
Chapter 6 / Handling “the Holdbacks and the Drags”
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Children and youth with behavioral disorders are not a product only of modernized social, economic, and educational systems. Recalcitrant, difficult, and disruptive young people have long and consistently challenged society and school systems. In the schools, behavior has been a constant issue—always there, always a matter of degree, and almost always a transaction between an individual pupil ...
Chapter 7 / Going to Public School
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As the 20th century opened, large institutional settings such as the American Asylum (American School for the Deaf) continued to thrive. Special classes and alternate programs and schools sprang up. The special segregated classes, destined to become the backbone and the chief bone of contention in special education for almost all of the next century, arrived largely unheralded. Once in place after about ...
Chapter 8 / The Professionalization of Special Education
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The development of teaching as a distinct profession in the 19th century was neither clear cut nor simple. In the opening decades, elementary teaching was a virtually unskilled and temporary job (Herbst, 1988), not viewed as a profession for either men or women. By the 1820s, a few private academies in the United States began to offer a modicum of teacher education (Woodring, 1975)...
Chapter 9 / The Era of Inclusion
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Complexity and contradiction characterized the reforms and paradigm shifts of the 1960s and 1970s. The next decade was perhaps more contemplative in that it witnessed much education debate that manifested as a fervent reexamination of schooling and of school systems as well as a re-imagining of the philosophy and practice of special education. A broad swath of social, demographic...
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Appendix A / Chronology of Developments in Special Education
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Appendix B / Summary of U.S. Federal Legislation on Special Education, 1879–2004
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Page Count: 304
Illustrations: 3 tables
Publication Year: 2009