The History of Inclusion in United States
Publication Year: 2005
Published by: Gallaudet University Press
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Since the enactment of PL 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, the United States has undergone a profound transformation in its efforts to provide a âfree and appropriate educationâ for school-age individuals with disabilities. The original legislation has been revised several times, most notably with the Individuals...
1. Special Education to 1930: The Rise of Segregation
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The current extensive involvement of American public schools in the education of children with disabilities constitutes a relatively recent development. Significant intellectual, physical, and behavioral differences among individuals have of course been observed for literally thousands of years, mostly in the form of...
2. 1930â1960: Special Education Comes of Age
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Between 1930 and 1960, the world of special education, both in and beyond the public schools, changed dramatically. During these three decades, the number of children identified as disabled and placed in a special education setting steadily increased; research on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of...
3. 1960â1968: Challenging Traditions in Special Education
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As the United States entered the 1960s, American public schools faced challenges in several areas. Discussions regarding social and economic inequality led to intense national soul-searching, with the sweeping implications of the Supreme Courtâs 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision affecting developments...
4. 1968â1975: Mainstreaming as the Alternative to Segregation
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Lloyd Dunnâs article, which openly questioned so much of special educationâs tradition and character, stimulated the kind of critique and self-reflection in the field that Dunn undoubtedly hoped it would. Over the next several years, a number of scholars and practitioners in special education reacted to Dunnâs critique...
5. 1977â1985: Refining the Concept of Integration
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Adjusting to the mandates of PL 94-142 as well as to the implications and possibilities of mainstreaming proved to be a tremendous challenge in developing and implementing special education in the public schools of the United States during the late 1970s and into the 1980s. The implementation of this...
6. 1985â1992: Integration,Mainstreaming, and the Regular Education Initiative
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In 1984, Susan and William Stainback published what would become one of the seminal statements in the debate concerning integration in special education. Their article, âA Rationale for the Merger of Special and Regular Education,â appeared in the October 1984 issue of Exceptional Children. Briefly, the Stainbacks presented a case,...
7. Resistance to Integration: Giftedness and Deafness
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Perhaps the most powerful legacy of the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954 was the widespread acceptance in national legal and educational policy of the ethical necessity of authentic, meaningful integration whenever and wherever possible. The abuse of civil and human rights caused by the forced segregation...
8. 1992â2004: The Promise, Limits, and Irony of Inclusion
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Today, special education stands at a crossroads. After decades of efforts to create truly special education for children with disabilities, decades of internal and external critique of the scope, form, and substance of special education within public school systems, and decades of trial and errorâintellectual as well as practicalâin trying...
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Page Count: 232
Illustrations: 10 photos
Publication Year: 2005