Advances in Cognition, Education, and Deafness
Publication Year: 1991
Published by: Gallaudet University Press
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In 1984, Gallaudet College (now University) hosted the First International Symposium on Cognition, Education, and Deafness. It is impossible to overstate the importance of this event. Never before had researchers, scholars, and teachers from these three fields come together to share their work, discuss their points of view, and learn from each other. It was a singularly successful conference, accomplishing even more than the organizers had hoped. From the conference came ...
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No undertaking of the scope of this volume is possible by any stretch of the imagination without the indispensable work of many persons. In addition to the obvious debt owed to the hard-working and productive authors of each of these chapters, and the penetrating syntheses carried out by the special chapter writers at the beginning and end of the volume, the analysts who performed careful work ...
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The Roman god Janus had two faces; he could look both backward and forward. His name is the root word for January, a connection with our impulse to look back on the past and forward to the future when the new year arrives. As we begin the 1990s, it is appropriate that we look back and forward in the same way. We need to see how our views of the deaf learner's ...
The Link Between Hand and Brain:Implications from a Visual Language
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The occasion of the Second International Symposium on Cognition, Education, and Deafness evoked memories of Edward Corbett's keynote address (1985) at Gallaudet's First International Symposium. Dr. Corbett's concerns at that time offer a perspective on how our field has advanced over the last five years. ...
Identification of Additional Learning Difficulties in Hearing-Impaired Children
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Educational psychologists who assess hearing-impaired children are particularly concerned with identifying any learning difficulties, in addition to deafness, that might hinder the child's progress in developing language. Van Uden's suggestion (e.g., Van Uden 1981, 1983) that some deaf children also have dyspraxia is of interest in this context. His concept of dyspraxia differs somewhat from that outlined in the literature on "clumsy" children and involves ...
A Portrait of Children in Transition:Utilizing the Salient Responses of Infants and Toddlers to Evaluate Sensorimotor Change
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The intent of this paper is to introduce a model that illustrates the continuities in infant development. The model provides early intervention professionals the opportunity to assess the developmental performance of a very young child and to devise interventions that are understandable to professionals who represent several interrelated disciplines and who use multiple theoretical constructs on ...
A Meta-Analytic Review of IQ Research with Deaf Persons
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The study of deaf persons' intelligence has long fascinated philosophers and psychologists because prelingual deafness denies natural acquisition of spoken language. The ancient Greeks posited that deaf people were "dumb" (i.e., without reason) because they did not acquire or use language. Since thought is expressed in speech and deaf persons did not acquire speech, it was ...
New Methodologies to Evaluate the Memory Strategies of Deaf Individuals
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Understanding deaf individuals' ability to process visual information is important in investigating their language abilities, since language input is received through this system. Early studies of visual information-processing (Heider 1940; Larr 1956; Myklebust & Brutton 1953; Olson 1967) reported lower levels of performance for deaf subjects when compared to hearing subjects, a deficit attributed to problems in their visual perception. ...
Pilot Investigation of Validation of the Modified Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) for Hearing Impaired Preparatory Students at Gallaudet University
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In the 1960s, the focus of research in educational psychology shifted from the teacher to the learner, so that the learner came to be viewed as the active processor of information. Wittrock (1974) called this idea the Active Learner Theory. ...
WAIS-R Verbal and Performance Profiles of Deaf Adolescents Referred for Atypical Learning Styles
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It is estimated that 6% to 8.6% of hearing-impaired children and youth experience specific learning disabilities not attributed to mental retardation, emotional/behavioral problems, or other sensory health impairments (Center for Assessment and Demographic Studies 1988; Craig & Craig 1987). In one survey, 23% of a sample of over 7,500 hearing-impaired students were identified ...
Auditory Sensitivity and Performance on Measures of Mental Status in Elderly Nursing Home Residents
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The elderly nursing home resident typically presents problems that cross physical, cognitive, and psychologic domains. Since these problems often interact, the analytic and logistic difficulties in assessment can increase exponentially. It follows that assessment of the elderly patient must be approached with emphasis on a characteristic feature of aging-overlap of system pathology. The National Nursing Home Survey indicates that the majority of institutionalized ...
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Educators of deaf children frequently ask, "Are available tests valid for use with deaf students?" Recent developments in psychometric theory and in the political and social arenas have stimulated renewed interest in this question. As more deaf students are being educated in public school programs, concerns relate to decisions about appropriate placement as well as about the use of minimum competency testing by states to certify students for high school ...
Deaf Readers' Acquisition of Word Meanings from Context
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A great deal of recent research has focused on the question of how readers acquire elaborated word meanings from context during reading, although this research has primarily concentrated on hearing individuals. We have little information about how deaf readers acquire word meanings from written contexts. We suggest that this is an important issue both for researchers involved in studying the impact of cognitive processes on the educational outcomes of deaf ...
Input/Output Modalities and Deaf Children's Psycholinguistic Abilities
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The research described in this report explores the psycholinguistic properties of American Sign Language (ASL) and the psycholinguistic abilities of deaf children. Two related questions are addressed. First, are ASL and English equally suitable for deaf children's linguistic, cognitive, and communicative needs? Or is it possible, as some have suggested (Fusfeld 1958; Myklebust 1964), that ASL is too iconic or ideographic to support deaf children's intellectual ...
The Relationship of Educational Background to Cognitive and Language Development Among Deaf Adolescents
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The research discussed in this paper describes linkages between the cognitive, educational, and linguistic development of deaf children by examining comprehensive longitudinal data on 39 deaf individuals who were followed from the time they first entered preschool until they graduated from high school. These data were originally gathered as part of a longitudinal study begun in 1969 of 40 deaf toddlers of hearing parents (Schlesinger & Meadow ...
The Interplay Between Visuospatial Language and Visuospatial Script
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The diversity of writing systems across languages provides excellent opportunities for investigators of human cognition to examine how children, hearing or deaf, adjust to meet various task demands imposed by different orthographies. Among the writing systems existing in the world today, Chinese characters are perhaps the most radically different from the English alphabetic system. In this paper we report on a study of deaf and hearing children in the ...
Deaf Readers' Comprehension of Complex Syntactic Structure
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What differentiates adult deaf readers who are proficient at reading English from those who are less proficient? Are there aspects of English grammar that the good reader understands but the poor reader does not? Is there some cognitive factor in the process of reading that good readers are better at? In this paper we address these questions by examining good and poor deaf readers' understanding of some aspects of English grammar. In particular, we examine ...
A Paradigm for Teaching Written English to Deaf Students: A Cognitive Fluency Assessment Model
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Historically, teachers of deaf students have been centrally concerned with techniques for facilitating the development of literacy. For many years this concern was manifest in the development of spoken English literacy. During the past three decades, the focus evolved into a concern for the development of sign communication literacy (in its many forms) and a concern for the development of reading and writing skills in English. Numerous assessment ...
Processes for Text and Language Acquisition in the Context of Microcomputer-Videodisc Instruction for Deaf and Multihandicapped Deaf Children
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Traditionally, children using classroom computers have been given few opportunities to initiate language. Moreover, there have been very few instructional software programs available that have truly interactive characteristics (Arcanin & Kawolkow 1980; Behrman 1984; Rose & Waldron 1983; Schwartz 1984; Ward & Rostron 1983). The present report concerns reading and writing instruction through a highly interactive program for Apple lIe and ...
Visual Reception of Sign Language in Young Deaf Children: Is Peripheral Vision Functional for Receiving Linguistic Information?
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The amount of information available to a deaf child in a given communication situation is limited in two ways: First, the child has only one primary input channel, vision, to use for gaining both environmental and linguistic information, and second, that channel is directional as opposed to global in reception. The child does not have access to information-whether environmental or linguistic-from behind, and typically, of course, the range of vision ...
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In 1985 I had the opportunity to write a similar analysis of papers from the First International Symposium on Cognition, Education, and Deafness. At that time, there was an identifiable underlying theme in the papers that reflected a positive direction in research in this area. That theme was an increasing attention to the importance of context in the study of language development and in the teaching of language. It is encouraging that this trend appears to be ...
Education and the Social Construction of Mind: Vygotskian Perspectives on the Cognitive Development of Deaf Children
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In his role as respondent from a researcher's perspective to the 1984 International Symposium on Cognition, Education, and Deafness, Donald Moores wrote that "probably the biggest discrepancy in relation to theory and its applications was the rare reference to the work of Vygotsky" (1985, p. 225). To this observation we can only say "Amen!" Though it has been more than a half a century since his death, no individual spoke more cogently of the relationship ...
The Influence of Family Coping on the Cognitive and Social Skills of Deaf Children
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The ability of hearing families to adapt to having a deaf child has been understudied. Those studies that have explored the dynamic between hearing parents and their deaf children have generally used a univariate model with a stress-pathology paradigm (Calderon 1988). This study uses a multivariate model to explore the varying levels of adaptation in these families. ...
The Understanding of Time by Deaf Pupils
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In psychology, the issue of time focuses upon the experience of past, present, future, simultaneity, and duration. It is also possible to divide the question of time into two complementary concepts: (1) time as an order of events or as relation of the type now, earlier, later, and (2) time as duration or as the experience of the measure of time. ...
Language and Cognitive Development of Deaf and Hearing Twin Sisters
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The child's ability to symbolize is manifested in the emergence of language and imaginative play during the second year of life. As aspects of the child's developing semiotic function (Piaget 1962), both language and play require that the child be able to represent reality in thought. ...
Intellectual Structure of Hearing-Impaired Children and Adolescents
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Cognitive development in deaf individuals has been explained from numerous perspectives, two of which are Myklebust's (1964) organismic shift hypothesis and Furth's (1971) view that no difference exists between deaf and hearing subjects in conceptual performance, at least up to the level of concrete operative thinking. Myklebust hypothesized that deaf individuals are ...
Symbolic Play Behaviors of Normally Developing Deaf Toddlers
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Children's play has long been acknowledged to be a source of information about the content and sophistication of their thoughts. Symbolic play (sometimes called "pretend" or "pretense" play) is thought to be tied especially closely to the development of other representational or semiotic functions (Piaget 1962) and, as such, to provide an index of cognitive development Or maturity (Bruner, Oliver & Greenfield 1966; Lowe 1975; McCune-Nicolich ...
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A notable feature of the six papers in this section is the diversity of approach, methodology, and subject matter. A welcome review of Vygotsky's theory in relation to an understanding of deaf children's cognitive development contrasts with the other papers summarizing empirical data, where sample size ranges from the case study of a single pair of twins to the analysis of IQ scores of 120 deaf and 150 hearing Israeli adolescents. ...
Specialized Cognitive Function Among Deaf Individuals: Implications for Instruction
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This study analyzed the preliminary results of an ongoing three-year study of cognitive function and cognitive education among hearing-impaired persons and considers these results in the context of previous studies (Craig & Gordon 1988; McKee 1987). In the earlier studies, the cognitive profile of deaf individuals was found to differ significantly from that of normally hearing persons. Cognitive task performance was below average, as might be expected, ...
Cortical Integration of Hemispherical Processes vs. Cognitive Processes in Deaf Children
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Neurophysiological and psychophysiological research and related psychological experiments have yielded a great deal of data concerning the functional differentiation of the cortical hemispheres. Nevertheless, fascination with the discovery of hemispheric asymmetry should not obscure an obvious phenomenon of interhemispherical communication through the corpus callosum. This tract, containing about two million nerve fibers, serves as an ...
Cortical Organization and Information Processing in Deaf Children
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In order to develop a neurolinguistic model for cortical processing during reading, we collected data on 24 deaf children to support the following two hypotheses that several researchers, including ourselves, have proposed (Greenberg & Kusche 1989; Kusche 1985; Neville 1985). ...
Mastery Motivation in Deaf and Hearing Infants: A First Look
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The idea that infants are motivated to engage their environment has only recently received empirical attention. Though White's (1959, 1963) influential papers provided the conceptual basis, it was not until the late 1970s that a concerted effort was made to operationalize the concept and develop a methodology appropriate for the study of the motivational characteristics of young infants (Jennings et al. 1979; Morgan et al. 1977). ...
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It should be noted at the outset that none of the work reviewed here utilized physiological measurements. Two of these papers, those by Craig and Gordon and by Kusche and Greenberg, do report cognitive findings that provide at least a speculative functional view of some underlying neural mechanisms. The paper by Knobloch-Gala presents no data but instead discusses certain formal linguistic incongruities in some educational practices for deaf learners that may in turn ...
Spontaneous Comparative Behavior and Categorization: The Links Between Mediated Interaction and Reading Comprehension
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Helping deaf persons to attain successful reading has always frustrated educators of the deaf. The discrepancy between reading achievement levels for hearing-impaired and hearing individuals is well documented in the literature (Furth 1966; Gentile & DiFrancesca 1969; Lane & Baker 1974). Studies documenting the achievement levels of hearing-impaired students over the last 10 years by the Gallaudet University Center for Assessment and ...
Hearing-Impaired Students' Performance on the Piagetian Liquid Horizontality Test: An Analysis and Synthesis
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Piaget and Inhelder (1956) examined from a developmental perspective whether or not children understood the concept of liquid horizontality-the principle that the surface of still water remains horizontal regardless of the tilt of the jar. They were concerned with children's ability to utilize external frames of reference for locating and comparing the positions and orientations of objects in space. They believed that this concept is an important milestone in a learner's ...
Learning Disabilities and Deafness: Do Short-term Sequential Memory Deficits Provide the Key?
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Since the rubella epidemic in the mid-1960s, hearing-impaired children with additional handicaps have drawn increased attention from educators (Powers, Elliot & Funderburg 1987). As a result of the growing size of the hearing-impaired population with additional disabilities, assessment and intervention techniques have been designed to provide suitable services for this group, though almost exclusively for the most severely multihandicapped students ...
The Influence of Information Structure and Processing Strategy on the Interpretation of Classroom Questions:A Microanalysis
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Questioning is a ubiquitous educational strategy with its roots in antiquity; however, the use of question-asking as an educational strategy makes several strong assumptions about the capacities of the learner. It assumes that the question can be processed on the linguistic or grammatical level; it assumes that on a social and cultural level the role of the question will be perceived in the same way by all participants; but equally important, it assumes that the ...
Constructive Processing in Skilled Deaf and Hearing Readers
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Recent research has shown that inferential processing is an important cognitive skill in the acquisition of knowledge (Spiro 1980). The ability to draw inferences is crucial to recalling prose (Kintsch 1974; Paris & Carter 1973), adding structure to story meaning (Collins, Brown & Larkin 1980; Mandler & Johnson 1977), and understanding the reading comprehension skills of children (Kail et al. 1977; Wilson 1979; Wilcox & Tobin 1974; Gibson & Levin ...
Interactions Between Language and Mathematics with Deaf Students: Defining the "Language-Mathematics" Equation
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The Gallaudet University School of Preparatory Studies serves students who do not have the mathematical and English language skills necessary to begin the university's undergraduate liberal arts program. Many preparatory students exhibit an inadequate level of skill development and a poor understanding of mathematical concepts in algebra and geometry. More than half the students fail the university's waiver test in Algebra I, and more than 90% fail ...
The van Hiele Levels of Geometric Thought Among Deaf Undergraduate Students
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Euclidean geometry plays a special part in the mathematics curriculum. In this course, the student is learning more than just isolated geometric facts. The student is being introduced to a mathematical system in which geometric facts are joined in a logical and coherent way. For many educators, the goal of teaching Euclidean geometry is to expose students to the deductive nature ...
Memory and Metamemory in Deaf Students
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The memory capabilities of deaf students have been. studied extensively; however, no comprehensive picture has emerged because of several problems. It is difficult to define memory, for it is not a unitary concept, but instead involves a variety of theoretical models. The research questions asked at the outset of most of the studies seem to have adopted the assumptions of the structural and process models. Yet the target of investigation has frequently been ...
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In their paper for this volume, Hillegeist and Epstein state that "apparent cognitive-processing problems may be linguistic-conceptual differences rather than an inherent inability to think abstractly." It is a measure of how far we have come since the first Symposium on Cognition, Education and Deafness (1984) that such caveats are now scarcely necessary. According to Tsui, Rodda, and Grove in their description of the view of Soviet ...
A Program to Enhance the Social Cognition of Deaf Adolescents
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A high proportion of deaf individuals have been reported to experience difficulties in social functioning. Through group testing and case studies of deaf persons, researchers have correlated deafness with a host of maladaptive personality characteristics, including impulsive behavior, egocentrism, lack of empathy, overt aggression, lack of self-esteem and conduct and adjustment disorders (Bachara et al. 1980; Craig 1965; Eabon 1984; Evans 1987; Gibson ...
Cognitive Enhancement of Hearing-Impaired Postsecondary Students
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Research with hearing-impaired persons has documented that there are no basic differences between their range of cognitive abilities and that of the general population, and that any inferiority in cognitive performance may be accounted for by experiential and linguistic deficits as well as by communication handicaps (Levine 1976). ...
Implications from the Cognitive Paradigm for Teacher Effectiveness Research in Deaf Education
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Leaders in teacher education have recognized a shift in the image of the teacher to that of "thoughtful professional" or "reflective thinker" (Carnegie Commission Task Force 1986; Holmes Group 1986). Along with this shift in the teacher's image has come a shift in the research paradigm used to investigate teacher effectiveness (Peterson 1988; Shavelson 1988). For the past decade, the most vigorous program of research on teaching has been the ...
Using Cooperative Learning and Concept Maps with Deaf College Students
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This chapter reports on a preliminary investigation of the potential of two information processing tools (scripted cooperative learning and concept maps) to address the need to develop methodologies in curricular areas outside the traditional areas of investigation and the need for instruction in cognitive strategies. ...
ASL Intervention Strategies for Teachers
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The value of using ASL to enhance classroom instruction has probably always been recognized by some teachers in the field. This point is especially true of deaf teachers, many of whom teach at the secondary level. But for other teachers the prospect of using ASL raises the very real concern not only of learning it but also of how to use it effectively in their classrooms. To assist teachers in their use of ASL in the classroom, a four-year demonstration ...
Application of Technology to Cognitive Development
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Verbal reasoning is necessary for a person to be able to process and utilize information and, in today's world, information utilization is becoming an increasingly important skill. Due to the exponentially expanding knowledge base, the ability to recall is no longer as important as the ability to access and use knowledge efficiently. For the child whose language development ...
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Cognitive intervention programs represent the ever-present problem in education of putting theory into practice. We all know that ideas that succeed beautifully in a well-controlled laboratory environment often fail when applied in normal classrooms. Yet, despite the difficulties and disappointments, it is critically important that application projects continue and that their ...
A Piagetian Model for Observation of Verbal, Nonvocal, and Nonverbal Cognitive Behavior in Hearing Impaired Infants and Young Children
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It is difficult to assess the cognitive strengths and communicative potential of profoundly, congenitally deaf infants and toddlers. Typical preschool tests and scales focus on a limited set of developmental steps that are easily discerned in young children who have normal hearing. No empirical evidence supports the notion that these developmental milestones are equivalent for children with severe to profound hearing losses. In fact, several studies point out the danger ...
Improving Cognitive Performance Through Mathematics Instruction
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M any programs designed to improve the cognitive performance of students require a substantial commitment of class time. This requirement especially applies to Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment Program (FIE) (Feuerstein 1980). While indications are that FIE is somewhat effective with deaf students (Martin 1984), the time, money, staff commitment, and training required to make the program accessible to most students in a school program ...
Philosophy: The Fiber of Deaf Education
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The Philosophy for Children program was created by Matthew Lipman of the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC) at Monclair State College in New Jersey (Lipman et al. 1980). The program was developed to enhance the thinking skills of hearing children in grades 3 through 10. In this program, teachers engage students in philosophical discussions ...
Cued Speech and Language Acquisition: The Case of Grammatical Gender Morpho-Phonology
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Speechreading is a difficult task for deaf people, and it is all the more so for the young deaf child who has to acquire language from his hearing parents' model, which is basically provided through the lips. Words with identical or similar lip images, the so-called "invisible" phonemes, and the distortions induced by co-articulation are the main factors that make speechreading on its ...
Teaching Metacognitive Reading Comprehension Techniques to Gallaudet University Freshmen
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The reading difficulty of college textbooks is a challenge faced by all college students. However, in facing this challenge, many deaf college students lack the comprehension strategies they need to make textbook study profitable and efficient. A recently developed reading-comprehension course for Gallaudet University freshmen gives them practice in using a set of comprehension ...
Early Intervention and Cognitive Development in Deaf Individuals
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For some years there have been various programs available to provide early intervention for deaf children, especially in the form of parent training. These programs in general have focused on attacking the primary and most obvious influence of deafness-delayed and inadequate language development in oral and written English. The widely accepted view of Piaget (1966) that sensorimotor learning is the basis for later cognitive and language learning and ...
The Interaction of Mental Imagery and Cognitive Styles in the Retention of Prose Among Deaf College Students
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The question of how learners could benefit most from their classroom experiences remains an exciting area of investigation and a particular challenge when the educational needs of special learners are addressed. Among many variables existing in the instructional setting, learners' field dependent/ independent cognitive styles-especially their ability to construct mental imagery-have been interesting topics for research in recent years. These two ...
Problem-Solving: A Vehicle for Developing Metacognition in Hearing-Impaired Students
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Metacognition refers to the "deliberate conscious control of one's own cognitive actions" (Brown 1980, p. 453), which implies an active control over knowledge that has been acquired almost subconsciously. Many hearing-impaired students, like their hearing peers, have been exposed to schooling that places an emphasis on the answer rather than on the process by which an answer is reached. Thus, these students have had limited experience in ...
Methodological Issues in Deafness Research
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A survey of published literature on deafness shows that subjects who are termed "deaf" often differ greatly on a number of variables, including pure-tone losses, age-of-onset of deafness, differential hearing status of family members, and different communication methods to which individuals have been exposed. Researchers have an obligation to their readers to provide an operational definition of their criteria for subject selection, especially the defining ...
Some Observations from a Different Point of View
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In science as in politics, being an outsider has distinct advantages and disadvantages. There is a difference in perspective: Things that look ordinary, familiar, or unchangeable to insiders often have a certain freshness and possibility to the outsider. Also, however, the outsider is never sure that this new perspective is not simply the result of ignorance. When an outsider speaks it must ...
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Page Count: 384
Illustrations: 36 tables, 18 figures
Publication Year: 1991