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Issues Unresolved

New Perspectives on Language and Deaf Education

Amatzia Weisel, Editor

Publication Year: 1998

Of the more than 400 studies presented at the 18th International Congress on Education of the Deaf, the 20 most incisive papers were selected, rewritten, and edited to construct the trenchant volume Issues Unresolved: New Perspectives on Language and Deaf Education. The resulting book provocatively challenges the invested reader in four critical areas of deaf education worldwide. Part 1, Communication: Signed and Spoken Languages, addresses matters that range from considering critical periods for language acquisition, researched by Susan D. Fischer, to assessing the impact of immigration policies on the ethnic composition of Australia’s deaf community, intriguing work by Jan Branson and Don Miller. Part 2, Communication: Accessibility to Speech, continues the debate with works on the perception of speech by deaf and hard of hearing children, contributed by Arthur Boothroyd, and automatic speech recognition and its applications, delineated by Harry Levitt. Educational issues are brought to the forefront in Part 3 in such engrossing studies as Lea Lurie and Alex Kozulin’s discourse on the application of an instrumental-enrichment cognitive intervention program with deaf immigrant children from Ethiopia. Stephen Powers offers another perspective in this section with his retrospective evaluation of a distance education training course for teachers of the deaf. Part 4, Psychological and Social Adjustment reviews progress in this area, with Anne de Klerk’s exposition on the Rotterdam Deaf Awareness Program, and Corinne J. Lewkowitz and Lynn S. Liben’s research on the development of deaf and hearing children’s sex-role attitudes and self-endorsements. These and the many other contributions by renowned international scholars in the field make Issues Unresolved a compelling new standard for all involved in deaf education.

Published by: Gallaudet University Press

Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

THIS BOOK consists of twenty chapters that offer a wide perspective on central issues in deaf education at the end of the millennium. These chapters were selected from more than four hundred papers presented at the 18th International Congress on Education of the Deaf (ICED). The criteria for selection were the papers' scientific quality and their significance to recent...

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Editorial Board

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pp. xi-xii

C. Tane Akamatsu Toronto Board of Education Toronto, Ontario, Canada Arthur Boothroyd Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences City University of New York New York, New York, USA Lise Bryan Henningsen Department of Audiology University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark Noel Cohen New York University Medical Center New York, New York, USA...

Contributors

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pp. xiii-xvi

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Preface: Unresolved Issues in Deaf Education

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pp. xvii-xxii

TWENTY YEARS AGO, in 1978, Tel Aviv University established the Hearing Impairment Program at the School of Education. The program's primary goals were to advance the level of teacher training and to promote research and development in the field of deaf education. The program, which is the only one of its kind in Israel, has changed the characteristics...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

INTERNATIONAL IN scope, Issues Unresolved: New Perspectives on Language and Deaf Education challenges and/or expands established thought on deafness and language in order to examine their impact on the development of deaf children. The volume's four parts include chapters reflecting the current...

Part 1. Communication: Sign and Spoken Languages

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1. Critical Periods for Language Acquisition Consequences for Deaf Education: Consequences for Deaf Education

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pp. 9-26

THIS CHAPTER focuses on critical periods for language acquisition and their consequences for deaf education. I shall begin with a few examples of critical periods-first, the fairly familiar story of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The king of the fairies decides to play a trick on his wife by having his puckish helper give her a magic potion, which makes her fall...

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2. Thinking with and without Language: What Is Necessary and Sufficient for School-Based Learning?

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pp. 27-40

IN THIS CHAPTER I raise issues that concern how deaf children learn and examine assertions in the literature about the relationship between cognition, language, and school-based learning. In particular, I explore the role of language in an overall conception of intelligence and the utility of this verbal intelligence in educational pursuits, particularly in literacy...

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3. Assessing Cognitive, Relational, and Language Abilities of Deaf Preschoolers in Italy

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pp. 41-52

AN APPROPRIATE evaluation of deaf children's cognitive, relational, and language abilities must take into account the child's family environment and, in particular, whether his or her parents are deaf or hearing. Children can naturally communicate with their deaf parents through their native sign language. Hearing parents communicate with their children primarily...

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4. Experiences and Perceptions of Deaf Students in a South African Sign Language Class

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pp. 53-64

IN SOUTH AFRICA, education for the deaf has been insufficiently researched, allowing for misleading perceptions of deaf children. As a result, "the education of deaf people in South Africa has failed to provide speech pathologists, audiologists, teachers, and parents of the deaf with a clear and cohesive direction for practice" (Penn and Reagan 1991, 19). This lack of...

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5. The Use of Addition in Sign Language Transliteration

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pp. 65-75

IN FACILITATING communication between deaf and hearing consumers, an interpreter can either interpret or transliterate. Interpreting involves translating the message into the native sign language of the community, The current definition of transliteration, published by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, is "the process of changing an English text into...

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6. Deaf Mothers as Communication Models for Hearing Families with Deaf Children

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pp. 76-87

DESPITE IMPROVED hearing aids, early identification of hearing loss, and the availability of early intervention programs, deaf children continue to lag behind their hearing peers in language development and, subsequently in school achievements and career opportunities (Johnson, Liddell, and Erting 1989). This pattern of developmental delay and underachievement...

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7 Achieving Human Rights Educating Deaf Immigrant Students from Non--English-Speaking Families in Australia

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pp. 88-100

THE RELATIVELY recent opening up of Australia to immigrants from a wide range of non-Western countries, including a wide range of refugees, has created a multicultural society with large numbers of people whose first and often only language is one other than English. This linguistic and cultural diversity has given rise to calls for bilingual education and the...

Part 2. Communication: Accessibility to Speech

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8. The Perception of Speech by Children with Hearing Loss

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pp. 103-116

SPEECH CONSISTS of language patterns that are encoded as sound patterns by movements of the breathing and eating mechanisms. This is a broad definition that includes speech movements, speech sounds, and the language patterns they represent. Speech perception is defined here as the process by which a perceiver tries to identify the talker's underlying...

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9. Oral-Only and Simultaneous Communication Speech Characteristics of Teachers of the Deaf

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pp. 117-125

DESPITE THE widespread adoption of the total communication philosophy and its most frequent application in simultaneous communication, concerns have emerged about the relative effectiveness of its practices from both receptive and productive perspectives. Critics of its use have attacked it for its ineffectiveness in achieving its avowed purposes (Johnson, Liddell, and Erting 1989), for its lack of emphasis on oral-aural...

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10. Recent Developments in Speech-to-Print Transcription Systems for Deaf Students

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pp. 126-132

IN THE PAST twenty years, the number of deaf and hard of hearing students educated in classes with hearing students has increased significantly at both secondary and postsecondary levels (Moores 1992; Rawlings, Karchmer, and DeCaro, 1988; Walter 1992). A major concern for these students is the adequacy of classroom communication; communication difficulties...

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11. Automatic Speech Recognition and Its Applications

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pp. 133-138

RECENT ADVANCES in automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology have been dramatic. With the help of a laptop computer and appropriate programs, an ASR device can recognize as many as 30,000 words. Although such progress is impressive, ASR technology has limitations. ASR devices that can handle large vocabularies (vocabularies of tens of thousands...

Part 3. Educational Issues

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12. Bilingual vs. Oral Education: Academic Achievement Levels in Deaf Eighth-Graders from Two Decades

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pp. 141-147

DURING THE first two-thirds of this century oral methods prevailed in the education and upbringing of deaf children in Sweden. The children were expected to rely on lipreading, use of residual hearing, and speech for communication. During this period most deaf children had virtually no functional language, spoken or signed, when they started school. In the late 1960s, however, attitudes toward...

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13. School and Classroom Characteristics That Facilitate the Social Integration of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

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pp. 148-160

IN THE LAST decade increasing numbers of children who are deaf or hard. of hearing (D/HH) have been educated in integrated public school programs with the expectation that this would benefit them both academically and socially. The success of these children in public schools is based on two sets of variables (Moores and Kluwin 1986). One set of variables lies within...

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14. The Instrumental Enrichment Cognitive Intervention Program with Deaf Ethiopian Immigrant Children in Israel

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pp. 161-170

DURING THE last decade, the Israeli educational system has faced the challenge of educationally integrating immigrants from Ethiopia, the majority of whom have had very little formal learning experience. This problem was particularly aggravated in the case of deaf immigrant children. These children confronted a twofold educational dilemma. On the one hand...

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15. Deaf Students Attending Regular Four-Year Colleges and Universities in the United States

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pp. 171-187

THE EDUCATIONAL goals and attainments of deaf people show the same range of diversity as those of hearing people. Some deaf people cease their formal education prior to or upon completion of high school, some proceed to two-year vocational or technical programs, and others enter four-year colleges and universities, with some continuing their education...

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16. A Retrospective Evaluation of a Distance Education Training Course for Teachers of the Deaf

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pp. 188-194

IN RECENT YEARS in the United Kingdom, there has been a move away from full-time training for teachers of the deaf to different forms of part-time training. This trend (see Table 16.1) is largely the result of government changes in funding. This movement away from full-time training is common to all areas of special needs teacher training in the United Kingdom...

Part 4. Psychological and Social Adjustment

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17. Mental Health Problems and Communication of Children with Hearing Loss in Finnish Special Schools

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pp. 197-205

THERE SEEMS to be universal agreement that a higher prevalence of psychopathology exists among children with hearing loss compared with their hearing peers. In their review of several epidemiological studies, Meadow and Trybus (1979) reported that serious emotional problems were three to six times as common among deaf children as among hearing...

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18. Deaf Identity in Adolescence: The Rotterdam Deaf Awareness Program

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pp. 206-214

DEAF ADOLESCENTS, in spite of their disability belong to the group of adolescents in general, and, therefore, reflect this group's characteristics. Because many deaf adolescents experience communication problems with their hearing parents, the period of adolescence will have a profound impact on parents and deaf youngsters...

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19. Development of Deaf and Hearing Children's Sex-Role Attitudes and Self-Endorsements

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pp. 215-230

RESEARCH WITH deaf adults indicates that they are at a disadvantage in comparison with their hearing peers, both in terms of level of education achieved and occupational status attained. Marschark (1993a), in a review of research on educational achievement by deaf students, confirmed that, despite recent gains on standardized tests of academic achievement...

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20. Deaf and Hearing Adults' Evaluation of Deaf People's Occupational Competence

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pp. 231-242

UNDERSTANDING THE development of persons with physical disabilities requires attention to both the psychological and social factors that affect it. Wright (1983) stated that the field of rehabilitation should deal with those variations in the physical characteristics of the individual that directly alter the individual's path of development by their effects...

Index

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pp. 243-250


E-ISBN-13: 9781563682285
E-ISBN-10: 1563682281
Print-ISBN-13: 9781563680670
Print-ISBN-10: 156368067X

Page Count: 272
Illustrations: 22 tables, 34 figures, 7 illustrations
Publication Year: 1998

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Deaf children -- Means of communication -- Congresses.
  • Deaf -- Education -- Congresses.
  • Deaf children -- Education -- Congresses.
  • Deaf -- Means of communication -- Congresses.
  • Deaf children -- Language -- Congresses.
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