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Deaf History Unveiled

Interpretations from the New Scholarship

John Vickrey Van Cleve, Editor

Publication Year: 1997

Deaf History Unveiled features 16 essays, including work by Harlan Lane, Renate Fischer, Margret Winzer, William McCagg, and other noted historians in this field. Readers will discover the new themes driving Deaf history, including a telling comparison of the similar experiences of Deaf people and African Americans, both minorities with identifying characteristics that cannot be hidden to thwart bias. Other studies track societal paternalism toward deaf people in Italy, Hungary, and the United States. Adding to its intrigue, the new research in this milestone study provides evidence for previously uncredited self-determination of Deaf people in establishing education, employment, and social structures common throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Historians, teachers, and students alike will prize Deaf History Unveiled as a singular collection of insights that will change historical perspectives on the Deaf experience worldwide.

Published by: Gallaudet University Press

Title Page

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Copyright

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CONTENTS

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pp. v-vi

ILLUSTRATIONS

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pp. vii-viii

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PREFACE

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pp. ix-x

As recently as the 1970s, deaf history did not exist. There were available sketches of various hearing men, primarily teachers, who were credited with bringing knowledge and enlightenment to generations of deaf children, but deaf adults were absent. Perhaps this

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xi-xv

Scholarship in the Humanities is most often a solitary enterprise. Research, writing, and editing are usually done alone, within the isolating confines of archives, library carrels, and small offices. In the end, however, despite the hours scholars spend by ...

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1

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pp. 1-12

This essay focuses on the myths surrounding the life and career of a Spanish Benedictine monk, Pedro Ponce de Leon, recognized by most historians as the first teacher of deaf children. It is much more than the traditional account of a hearing teacher bringing enlightenment to ...

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2

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pp. 13-26

The relationship between natural sign languages-those developed through the everyday interactions of deaf people among themselves- and the communication method employed in deaf education is a major historical and pedagogical problem. Some scholars have argued, for ...

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3

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pp. 27-39

Social events are integral to deaf communities. They provide an opportunity for deaf people to come together among themselves, relax, converse easily, exchange gossip, and otherwise focus on issues of particular interest to them as a class apart. Together with residential ...

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4

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pp. 40-52

The events of the hearing world have profound effects on the issues confronting deaf people, shaping the choices possible for individual deaf lives, as this essay shows. Historian Anne Quartararo views the nineteenth-century Parisian deaf community (which gave rise to the ...

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5

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pp. 53-73

Early accounts of deaf history glorified the achievements of hearing men like Pedro Ponce de Leon, the Abbe de l'Epee, and, of course, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, the cofounder with Laurent Clerc and Mason Cogswell of today's American School for the Deaf. As ...

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6

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pp. 74-91

Another aspect of paternalism in American schools for deaf students may be the emphasis those institutions placed on vocational training rather than academic studies. Students typically spent half or more of their time each day learning trades, such as carpentry or dressmaking. Since academic ...

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7

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pp. 92-112

The most common subjects in deaf history are education and the controversy within education between manualists and oralists. The clash between the latter two groups is usually portrayed in relatively simple terms. On one side are the "good" people and on the other are the ...

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8

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pp. 113-126

This essay is written from the perspective of a hearing German scholar who deals with two of the most controversial issues facing students of deaf history. One is the place of hearing scholars in the historical study of deaf people. The other is an interpretation of German ...

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9

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pp. 127-145

Historians know that deaf people came together in the nineteenth century in various countries of western Europe and the United States to form deaf communities. These groups of deaf adults regularly interacted in social situations-such as the Parisian banquets discussed ...

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10

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pp. 146-171

Margret Winzer's essay discussed an open, secular, and almost certainly patriarchal community of deaf people in Canada's English- speaking Ontario Province. By contrast, this study examines a closed, religious, matriarchal deaf community-an order of deaf nuns-in ...

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11

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pp. 172-197

This essay is one of the few studies in American deaf history that carefully and unambiguously document a specific instance of hearing oppression of those who are deaf. Robert Buchanan begins by review ...

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12

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pp. 198-223

School papers were often at the heart of deaf community communication in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Silent Worker and a few other institution periodicals had broad audiences and discussed issues of significance to the national deaf community. Chroniclers of deaf history have used papers to understand general ...

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13

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pp. 224-236

Most published studies of deaf history relate to North America and Western Europe, particularly France and England. In these countries deaf people historically have had the most influence over their own lives. As well, these are relatively wealthy nations that could and did ...

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14

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pp. 237-251

Elena Radutzky's study of the history of deaf education in Italy pays particular attention to the important nineteenth century. Her essay also comments on the situation at the end of the twentieth century, however, when mainstreaming became influential, and, the author ...

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15

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pp. 252-271

William McCagg's study of Hungarian deaf history challenges many recent interpretations. Contrary to several essays in this collection, McCagg concludes that the history of deaf people has not been a record of oppression, at least not in Hungary. He also argues that when ...

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16

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pp. 272-292

This last essay may well be the most controversial. In it, Harlan Lane makes the provocative argument that an "audist establishment" of special education teachers, audiologists, medical doctors, and psychologists have worked together to create a medical ...

CONTRIBUTORS

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pp. 293-296

INDEX

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pp. 297-301


E-ISBN-13: 9781563681745
E-ISBN-10: 1563681749
Print-ISBN-13: 9781563680878
Print-ISBN-10: 1563680874

Page Count: 316
Illustrations: 20 photographs
Publication Year: 1997