We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Analyzing Syntax and Semantics

A Self-Instructional Approach for Teachers and Clinicians

Virginia Heidinger

Publication Year: 1984

This 22-chapter text explores the structure of language and the meaning of words within a given structure. The text/workbook combination gives students both the theory and practice they need to understand this complex topic.

Published by: Gallaudet University Press

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF (33.3 KB)


pdf iconDownload PDF (83.5 KB)
pp. v-vii

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (56.7 KB)
pp. ix

Human beings, regardless of race or culture, develop language in order to communicate with one another. Most children develop language by listening, watching, and interacting with the people in their environments. There are some children, though, who are incapable of acquiring language through the normal processes, ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (23.3 KB)
pp. xi

I wish to extend my thanks to Martin Noretsky of the Gallaudet College Instructional Development and Evaluation Center for his tireless work in the development of the selected approach, for his help in editing the text and tests, for his direction of the evaluation process, and for his willingness to give of his own time ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (322.4 KB)
pp. 1-4

Language acquisition is a difficult task for children with hearing impairment and learning disorders. These children must be led through the language development process in as natural a way as possible. It is not possible to teach children all the sentences they will ever need to communicate and to acquire knowledge. ...

read more

CHAPTER 1 Nouns and Noun Phrases

pdf iconDownload PDF (671.2 KB)
pp. 5-15

The child learns the syntax of language by internalizing the rules for generating sentences rather than by acquiring individual words and building sentences out of this vocabulary. An effective language development program, one that follows the normal pattern of development, will focus on sentences ...

read more

CHAPTER 2 Verb Phrase Constituents

pdf iconDownload PDF (493.0 KB)
pp. 16-24

A sentence must consist of a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). This chapter concentrates on adverbials that are obligatory or optional in verb phrases and on adjectives that are obligatory constituents in one type of sentence or that elaborate noun phrases. Obligatory indicates that the word or phrase ...

read more

CHAPTER 3 Verbs and Verb Phrases

pdf iconDownload PDF (581.9 KB)
pp. 25-35

In this chapter, as in the preceding ones, the discussion of the sentence constituent is, much of the time, out of the context of sentences, and, for the most part, will be concerned with the grammatical aspects of verbs and their auxiliaries. The verb, however, and the predication it expresses are central ...

read more

CHAPTER 4 Sentence Patterns 1 and 2

pdf iconDownload PDF (696.9 KB)
pp. 36-46

Children learn a language through hearing or, in the case of deaf children, through hearing and/or seeing connected language. In comprehending a message they get meaning not only from the individual words in the sentence, but also from the important constituents and the semantic roles of these constituents in sentences. ...

read more

CHAPTER 5 Sentence Patterns 3, 4, and 5

pdf iconDownload PDF (368.6 KB)
pp. 47-53

The last three of the five basic sentence patterns contain linking verbs that are stative. The most often used of the linking verbs is the copula be. Sentences of these patterns may be used to express feelings about ourselves or others and to designate states, conditions, or equivalents of persons or things. ...

read more

CHAPTER 6 Language Analysis I and Review

pdf iconDownload PDF (382.6 KB)
pp. 54-61

The first five chapters concentrated on constituents in sentences and basic sentences in the language. Basic sentences are sentences without the complexities of negatives, questions, imperatives, personal or other pronouns, contractions, shifted elements, etc., and without clauses that would serve to conjoin ...

read more

CHAPTER 7 Pronominalization

pdf iconDownload PDF (653.7 KB)
pp. 62-72

The units in this chapter deal with complexities in sentences, such as questions, imperatives, negatives, passives, and pronominalizations. In generating sentences with such complexities, rules are required in addition to those for the formulation of noun and verb phrases in the basic sentences. ...

read more

CHAPTER 8 Sentence Complexities

pdf iconDownload PDF (524.3 KB)
pp. 73-81

The preceding chapter on pronominalization introduced complexity of syntax resulting from the use of various kinds of pronouns. The primary operation involved was substitution of a pronoun for a noun phrase, although some pronominalizations involve substitution of a pronoun for a sentence or series of sentences. ...

read more

CHAPTER 9 Verb Phrase Complexities

pdf iconDownload PDF (420.7 KB)
pp. 82-89

Complexities in the verb phrase arise with the addition of auxiliary verbs, contractions, and negations. The be, modal, and have auxiliaries were introduced earlier in the text, and the difficulties associated with their use, both syntactically and semantically, were explained. ...

read more

CHAPTER 10 Question Modalities

pdf iconDownload PDF (688.4 KB)
pp. 90-101

There are two major types of questions in the English language: yes-no questions and wh-questions. Included in the yes-no questions are tag questions, which may be considered a third type because of the difference in syntactic structure from other yes-no questions. Semantically, however, there are two forms, ...

read more

CHAPTER 11 Particle Movement and There Transformation

pdf iconDownload PDF (262.5 KB)
pp. 102-106

The particle movement (prt movt) and there transformation are operations involving a rearrangement of words in basic sentences, and, in the case of there, the addition of a word. The meaning relationships in the sentence, for the most part, remain the same after the transformation. ...

read more

CHAPTER 12 The Passive Transformation

pdf iconDownload PDF (414.3 KB)
pp. 107-113

The italicized verb phrases are all passive voice. An individual not understanding the structure of the passive could derive the wrong information concerning some of the facts of the story. Having arrived at a level of being able to understand the subject-verb-object relationships in sentences, ...

read more

CHAPTER 13 Language Analysis II and Review

pdf iconDownload PDF (485.5 KB)
pp. 114-125

The first set of chapters presented basic sentences and complexities in noun and verb phrases. The second set dealt with additional complexities that result from modality changes and from single base transformations, operations involving single sentences. Most of the complexities to this point have been in single ...

read more

CHAPTER 14 Coordination

pdf iconDownload PDF (504.3 KB)
pp. 126-134

Complex sentences containing two or more propositions are primarily derived by means of operations. These operations include conjoining, relativization, compleĀ· mentation, and nominalization. Thus far, you have dealt with complex sentences containing two propositions that were derived with operations ...

read more

CHAPTER 15 Subordination

pdf iconDownload PDF (463.5 KB)
pp. 135-142

Propositions may be linked in the surface structure to express meaning relationships such as time, location, manner, concession; cause and effect relationships; and conditional relationships. The resulting sentences will consist of an independent clause and a dependent clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction. ...

read more

CHAPTER 16 Relativization

pdf iconDownload PDF (932.4 KB)
pp. 143-158

The previous two chapters dealt primarily with complex sentences involving the process of conjoining with either coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. A second operation for relating propositions is relativization, in which one proposition is embedded into a main or core proposition. ...

read more

CHAPTER 17 Comparatives

pdf iconDownload PDF (360.5 KB)
pp. 159-164

The ability to use comparatives, both the comparative and superlative degrees, reflects a certain level of cognitive or conceptual maturity. Hargis (1977) commented on the importance of comparative constructions in communicating cognitive processes such as seriation and conservation. ...

read more

CHAPTER 18 Language Analysis III and Review

pdf iconDownload PDF (680.4 KB)
pp. 165-176

The preceding chapters introduced conjoinings, relativizations, and comparatives. With the exception of the noun phrase elaborations (adjective, noun adjunct, and possessive modifiers) these syntactic complexities are the first that involve processes by means of which two or more propositions may be expressed in one sentence. ...

read more

CHAPTER 19 Nominalization and Complementation

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.1 MB)
pp. 177-194

The previous chapters on coordination and relativization centered on two of the four processes used for relating propositions. Complex sentences, those which express more than a single proposition, may also involve complementation and nominalization. The last chapters deal with these two processes for ...

read more

CHAPTER 20 Complementation with Direct and Indirect Discourse

pdf iconDownload PDF (663.7 KB)
pp. 195-204

There are syntactic forms for reporting discourse either verbatim (exactly, e.g., Mother said, "Dad will be late") or in an indirect way (e.g., Mother said that Dad would be late). These syntactic forms, direct and indirect discourse, involve forms of complementation. The reported spoken utterance is syntactically ...

read more

CHAPTER 21 Complementation with Wh-Clauses, Factive Clauses, and Other Nominalizations

pdf iconDownload PDF (482.0 KB)
pp. 205-212

The last of the complexities to be presentE!d in the text are also forms of nominalization and complementation. All of the possible complexities of English will not be presented; however, the author's intent has been to present the majority of the structures that the teacher or clinician needs to be aware of for evaluating, ...

read more

CHAPTER 22 Language Analysis IV and Review

pdf iconDownload PDF (546.7 KB)
pp. 213-221

The concluding chapter of the text is another review. It contains additional practice on a contrived sample of language that would be typical of a child who is developing language normally. There is also practice on locating complexities in language that would typically be found in reading materials at the elementary-school level. ...


pdf iconDownload PDF (224.2 KB)
pp. 222-224


pdf iconDownload PDF (44.9 KB)
pp. 225


pdf iconDownload PDF (528.9 KB)
pp. 226-234

E-ISBN-13: 9781563681578
E-ISBN-10: 1563681579
Print-ISBN-13: 9780913580912
Print-ISBN-10: 0913580910

Page Count: 248
Publication Year: 1984

Research Areas


UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • Individualized instruction.
  • English language -- Study and teaching.
  • Deaf -- Education.
  • English language -- Grammar, Generative.
  • English language -- Study and teaching (Higher).
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access