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Choosing the Future for American Juvenile Justice

Franklin E. Zimring

Publication Year: 2014

This is a hopeful but complicated era for those with ambitions to reform the juvenile courts and youth-serving public institutions in the United States. As advocates plea for major reforms, many fear the public backlash in making dramatic changes. Choosing the Future for American Juvenile Justice provides a look at the recent trends in juvenile justice as well as suggestions for reforms and policy changes in the future. Should youth be treated as adults when they break the law? How can youth be deterred from crime? What factors should be considered in how youth are punished?What role should the police have in schools?

This essential volume, edited by two of the leading scholars on juvenile justice, and with contributors who are among the key experts on each issue, the volume focuses on the most pressing issues of the day: the impact of neuroscience on our understanding of brain development and subsequent sentencing, the relationship of schools and the police, the issue of the school-to-prison pipeline, the impact of immigration, the privacy of juvenile records, and the need for national policies—including registration requirements--for juvenile sex offenders. Choosing the Future for American Juvenile Justice is not only a timely collection, based on the most current research, but also a forward-thinking volume that anticipates the needs for substantive and future changes in juvenile justice.

Published by: NYU Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgements

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pp. vii-viii

The idea for this volume was sparked by the anonymous reviewers who evaluated our proposal for the Youth, Crime, and Justice Series that this book now officially launches. Many people deserve our thanks for ensuring that a promising idea became a potentially useful book for...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-4

The juvenile court and the system of juvenile justice that it produced was invented in Illinois in 1899 and is now 115 years old. While it is the youngest of the major institutions of Anglo-American law, it has also become the most popular. There are juvenile courts in all 50 American...

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Part I: The Legacy of the 1990s

The two chapters in this introductory section profile the changes in youth violence and in the legal framework of juvenile justice that happened during the 1990s in the United States. Chapter 1 tells the story of youth homicide trends from the mid-1980s to the...

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1. American Youth Violence: A Cautionary Tale

Franklin E. Zimring

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pp. 7-36

A volume on reforms in juvenile justice presents its opening chapter on American youth violence for two reasons. First, concerns about youth violence had been driving the wave of state penal legislation in the 1990s. Second, youth violence because of its extremity is an obvious priority...

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2. The Power Politics of Juvenile Court Transfer in the 1990s

Franklin E. Zimring

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pp. 37-52

The boundary between the juvenile court’s delinquency jurisdiction and the criminal process should be one of those obvious fault lines between sharply different approaches to the same sort of problems that provoke analysis and debate in courts, in the academy, and in state legislatures. What...

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Part II: New Borderlands for Juvenile Justice

An important part of a twenty-first-century agenda for reform in the legal world of adolescence is reversing the negative impact of the legal changes discussed in Part I of this book, but there are also several emerging issues that affect kids and the juvenile court that require...

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3. Juvenile Sexual Offenders

Michael F. Caldwell

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pp. 55-93

The state interest in reducing sexual violence in society is both appropriate and honorable. The rate of violence in a society is arguably an appropriate proxy for the degree of civility in a society. However, to achieve the end of producing a more civil society, public policies must...

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4. The School-to-Prison Pipeline: Rhetoric and Reality

Aaron Kupchik

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pp. 94-119

Schools are an important and often overlooked site for studying children’s introductions to the juvenile justice system. Schools teach behavioral norms and expectations, and they establish credentials for future academic and professional endeavors, both of which can shape the likelihood...

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5. Education behind Bars?: The Promise of the Maya Angelou Academy

James Forman Jr.

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pp. 120-129

The theme of our conference is choosing the future of juvenile justice. In my talk I will argue that as we choose that future, education must be at the center of our efforts. I believe this is the only way we will create a juvenile justice system that serves the needs of young people and...

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6. A Tale of Two Systems: Juvenile Justice System Choices and Their Impact on Young Immigrants

David B. Thronson

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pp. 130-148

Decisions and actions in juvenile justice systems across the United States serve as de facto immigration decisions every day. But juvenile justice and immigration are not the two systems referenced in the title of this chapter. When immigrant youth are involved with law enforcement and...

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7. Juvenile Criminal Record Confidentiality

James B. Jacobs

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pp. 149-168

This chapter examines juvenile criminal records, an important but understudied topic in the history of American juvenile justice. Beginning with an analysis of the theory and uneven practice of keeping juvenile police and court records confidential from the early 1900s to the 1960s, the chapter then examines recent trends that have further eroded...

8. Minority Overrepresentation: On Causes and Partial Cures

Franklin E. Zimring

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pp. 169-186

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Part III: Making Change Happen

The last section of this book shifts the focus from the types of legal and institutional change that should take place in the next decade to the strategies and appeals that might facilitate reforms. In Chapter 9, Terry Maroney surveys the changes in both neuroscience and legal rhetoric...

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9. The Once and Future Juvenile Brain

Terry A. Maroney

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pp. 189-215

From the comfortable perch of a decade out, it seems clear that twentieth- century juvenile justice passed through three distinct eras.1 The founding era, often referred to by reference to the rehabilitative ideal by which it was motivated and shaped, began at the century’s turn (Tanenhaus...

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10. On Strategy and Tactics for Contemporary Reforms

Franklin E. Zimring and David S. Tanenhaus

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pp. 216-234

The previous chapters have produced a persuasively argued agenda for changes in laws and institutions that will reduce many burdens of adolescent development and improve the life chances of the adults our children become. The shopping list for change is easy to construct...

About the Contributors

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pp. 235-238

Index

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pp. 239-248


E-ISBN-13: 9781479863402
E-ISBN-10: 1479863408
Print-ISBN-13: 9781479816873
Print-ISBN-10: 1479816876

Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 2014