Greater than Equal
African American Struggles for Schools and Citizenship in North Carolina, 1919-1965
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: The University of North Carolina Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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Throughout the process of writing this book, I have wrestled with the dilemma of knowing that I had more stories to tell than any reasonable editor would permit. Nowhere is that more true than in the acknowledg-ments. These few paragraphs can only begin to convey my gratitude for the many people who have helped with what has truly been a collabora-...
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...colored race shall be taught in separate public schools; but there shall be no discrimination made in favor of, or to the prejudice of, either race.[The Negro’s] educational development may be temporarily retarded by unconstitutional and unchristian legislation, but his citizenship is a fixture.The new choice, it seems, is between separate but equal [schools] ...
1 The Price of Equality: Black Loyalty, Self- Help, and the “Right Kind of Citizenship”
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The Negro people seem to be pathetically desirous of sending their children to school.—Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, It is essential that our children should be given the best training and education possible to qualify them for the responsible duties of citizenship.—Petition from African American parents in Smithfield to local school officials, 1925...
2 Lessons in Citizenship: Confronting the Limits of Curricular Equalization in the Jim Crow South
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...[It was once believed] that Negroes should have industrial education. The classics would spoil him by causing him to aspire to places designed for whites only. If our association had done nothing else within the past thirty years except to participate in changing this philosophy, it would have justified its existence and support.—North Carolina Teachers Association president Oliver R. Pope, 1934...
3 The High Cost of It All: James E. Shepard and Higher Education Equalization
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To you who are discouraged, citizenship is not in constitutions but in the mind.—North Carolina Central University founder James E. Shepard, 1903It seems to me that our struggle is two- fold: against those whites who would deny us our rights, and against the “handkerchief heads” within our own group.—Civil rights activist Pauli Murray, on her frustrated attempts to integrate the ...
4 A “Most Spectacular” Victory?: Teacher Salary Equalization and the Dilemma of Local Leadership
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...—Editorial in the North Carolina Teachers Record, the organ of the We cannot afford to dis- establish the direct channel of contact which we have at all times had with those in authority in North Carolina. If this channel is diverted from the North Carolina Negro to the New York Negro and then back to North Carolina, the wayside station in New York might not last as long as our problems....
5 How Can I Learn When I’m Cold?: A New Generation’s Fight for School Facilities Equalization
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There were a lot of people—black people—that said we shouldn’t —Lillian Bullock McQueen, on the Lumberton NAACP Youth Council’s The Negroes here are at a point where they are ready to be led out of slavery.—Attorney Herman Taylor, on filing a school equalization lawsuit in Lumberton, 1947Shall we now dilly- dally, neglect to do what we ought and can do, ...
6 From Equalization to Integration: Struggles for Schools and Citizenship in the Age of Brown
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Since our parent- teacher Congress is interested in emphasizing [the] full dimensions of citizenship of children and youth regardless of race, creed, or color, we commend and support the United States Supreme Court for its inevitable —Resolutions of the North Carolina Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers, 1954that facilities must be made truly equal, then we are going to have trouble....
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Most [black] parents felt that this is a good opportunity for my children to get the best, . . . but they thought that they were really going to integrate the whole thing. They had no idea that they were going to erase the buildings and —Educator Catherine Sudderth Tucker, on school desegregation in Hickory, 2010Broughton a more inclusive community and us more well- rounded individuals....
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Publication Year: 2013