Two Troubled Souls
An Eighteenth-Century Couple's Spiritual Journey in the Atlantic World
Publication Year: 2013
Reynier's and Knoll's lives illuminate an underside of empire where religious radicals fought against church authority and each other to find and spread the truth; where Atlantic peoples had spiritual, medical, and linguistic encounters that authorities could not always understand or control; and where wives disobeyed husbands to seek their own truth and opportunity.
Published by: The University of North Carolina Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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There are many people and institutions to recognize for their generous as-sistance in the completion of this project. Let me begin with the numerous archives and libraries whose staff s helped me. Many of the manuscripts used in this project came from the Unity Archives in Herrnhut, Germany, and Olaf Nippe was especially helpful in making these materials available. Many ...
Note on Calendars and Currency Exchange Rates
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With the exception of Britain and its American colonies, all of the places men-tioned in this book had adopted the Gregorian (?new style?) calendar during the period of this study. The British Empire continued to use the Julian (?old style?) calendar, which was eleven days behind the Gregorian, until aft er 2 September 1752. Thus correspondence, reports, and other documents about ...
Introduction: Marriage, Mission, and Migrants in the Atlantic World
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...a woman named Maria Barbara Knoll and a doctor named Jean-Fran?ois Reynier, two very diff erent people from very diff erent corners of Europe who were drawn into the historic events that shaped the Atlantic World in the eighteenth century. Throughout their obscure but storied lives, Knoll and Reynier resided on three continents, endured four colonial wars, and partici-...
PART I: A Young Man’s Path into the Atlantic World
If you cannot accept me as I am, then I cannot help it and can do no diff erently. The Lord himself would have to make me diff erent, should He middle of a lifelong odyssey. As a disaff ected youth, he had left his home in the Swiss Alps to fi nd spiritual truth abroad, and World. His spiritual journey became a voyage of self-discovery, ...
1. Alpine Origins
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I had not been persecuted by the authorities, as is usually the case when one withdraws from a godless life and society, but I did seek to rid myself of daily encounters with my physical relatives. . . . I saw how fi lled with sin I was and how this sin separated me from my God. I then refl ected on my situation and ? Jean-Fran?ois Reynier, explaining why he left home for Pennsylvania ...
2. Pennsylvania: A Troubled Pietist in an Individualist Paradise
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I wandered in the [Pennsylvania] countryside, from one plantation to another, asking people how they lived with this problem, and whenever fi nding someone And so I went about building my hermit cabin, with some of them [Ephrata brethren] helping me because they had promised to, although they were clearly annoyed and did not want to. Moreover they broke off all ...
3. Georgia: Joining a Colony of Rebels
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I have never formally studied anything. Nor do I have complete and proper training in anything, because I have never ever been able to stick with any one thing. For a while I was a chemist, and for a while I was a surgeon, an apothecary, a barber, a doctor, a button maker, a shoemaker, a tailor, a pewterer, a hermit, a pilgrim, and a servant or slave to a master builder ...
4. Giving Europe Another Chance
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Spangenberg, who had recently come from America, said to me that the Brethren were very pleased that I was so amenable to this matter, and they considered it good that I was going to enter the marital state, for they had swept through England. George Whitefi eld had returned from America and was preaching to huge crowds in the open air, moving them to tears with ...
5. A Woman’s Path into the Atlantic World
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Thus, in February 1742, I travelled there with them. Straight away I got the strong impression that these were truly a people of God. I immediately applied for permission to remain with the Congregation, which, to my joy, I received. ? Woman who was later sent by the Moravians on a mission to America describing how she entered their community of Herrnhaag in Wetteravia ...
6. The Wedding
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The holy estate of marriage is to us a true religion, and in spite of the ever present feeling that this might not be the case, it is a sacred mystery, Knoll lived well during her brief stay in Schlo? Marienborn. She resided and worked with the single sisters or virgins ( Jungfern ) in the palace (the Single Sisters? House in Herrnhaag was not completed until 1743). There ...
7. A Long Journey Together
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I will love her [Maria Barbara] as my life and protect her more than myself, but never love her so much that I would not be willing to go from the visible to the invisible in every hour of my life, and never protect her so that it would ? Jean-Fran?ois Reynier, declaration before departing for Suriname, My calling is very great and important to me. I will gladly devote myself to ...
8. Trouble in Suriname
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Dear Herr Graf, I oft en think ?O, if I only had little wings so that I could fl y back [to Marienborn] for only an hour to warmly kiss everyone?s hands and feet and then return to Suriname!? O, the pain I feel because this cannot be. ? Maria Barbara Reynier to Count Zinzendorf, Paramaribo, Suriname, The Europeans are like so many kings in their courts. The Devil is their Kaiser, ...
9. Salvation and Success on St. Thomas
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But how it was in my Heart, that thou canot well Imagine, aft er that I had sat 2 whole years in our Barren Surinam, My Lamb knew well that I had need of such a Hearts Quickening, therefore was he graciously pleased to give it me. ? Jean-Fran?ois Reynier to Bishop David Nitschmann, St. Thomas, niers appeared by accident at the Moravian slave mission on the Caribbean ...
10. Crisis and Controversy in Pennsylvania
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This I do not wish, but if it cannot be any other way, then Pennsylvania is big ? Jean-Fran?ois Reynier, answering a Moravian brother who asked whether I can not stay here?it is much too frightening. I hope that someone will be ? Maria Barbara Reynier, answering a Moravian sister who asked whether Aft er 1743, the Reyniers found more space in which to explore, ...
11. Onto the Transatlantic Stage
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Regnier yearned to have his report published in his country during his lifetime. But because publication turned out to be so extremely diffi cult there, it was sent from America to Frankfurt in order to realize his intention. 1 ? Johann Philip Fresenius discussing the publication of Jean-Fran?ois wrote his autobiography. His work worried Maria Barbara for two reasons?...
12. Separation, Empowerment, and Flight from Pennsylvania
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She [Frau Reynier] then asked me for advice about this matter and was of the opinion based on what Ephrata members had told her that she was completely within her rights to separate from her husband. But I could not believe that she had taken this step [that is, gone to Ephrata] just because she desired celibacy. I asked her then, if she could in good conscience assure me that this really was ...
13. A Separate Peace in Georgia
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Because the name of Brother was taken from him [Reynier], he took his wife and left us. He fi nally ended his restless life in Savannah, Georgia. May God ? T h e Ephrata Chronicle ?s description of the fi nal fate of Jean-Fran?ois and The Reyniers lived their fi nal years in Georgia, away from the limelight of revival and public debate between competing religious groups ...
Conclusion: Seekers at Rest in a World They Could Not Change
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During their spiritual journey of over thirty-fi ve years, the Rey-niers struggled to know and accept one another, fi nd truth and opportunity, survive, and at times change the Atlantic World. It was a long journey fi lled with hope, fear, danger, grief, success, disappointment, mistrust, and a fi nal separate peace between them. What do these two lives show us about the ...
Appendix: Genealogy of Jean-François Reynier of Vevey , 1712–1775
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Page Count: 336
Illustrations: 2 line drawings, 1 map
Publication Year: 2013