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Terms of Inclusion

Black Intellectuals and the Politics of Belonging in Twentieth-Century Brazil

Paulina L. Alberto

Publication Year: 2011

In this history of black thought and racial activism in twentieth-century Brazil, Paulina Alberto demonstrates that black intellectuals, and not just elite white Brazilians, shaped discourses about race relations and the cultural and political terms of inclusion in their modern nation.

Published by: The University of North Carolina Press

Cover, Title page, copyright, dedication

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pp. i-v

Contents, Ilusstrations

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pp. vii-ix

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pp. xi-xiii

For funding my research at several stages, I am grateful to the Social Science Research Council, the Josephine de Kármán Foundation, the Department of History of the University of Pennsylvania, and, at the University of Michigan, the Department of History, the Rackham Graduate School, and the Eisenberg ...

Abbreviations and Acronyms

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pp. xv-xvi

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pp. 3-22

Until 1888, when Brazil became the last society in the Americas to abolish slavery, the slave system was as extensive there as it had been anywhere in the new world. Slavery was not just the center of Brazil’s brutal economic engine; it was a way of life, the foundation of a deeply hierarchical society marked by pervasive ...

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1. Foreigners: São Paulo, 1900–1925

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pp. 23-68

As the twentieth century opened, a small group of men of color in the city and state of São Paulo had cause to be optimistic about their future. Slavery was no more, and the laws of the new Republic (1889–1930) formally declared all literate adult men full and equal citizens of the nation. As a relatively privileged group ...

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2. Fraternity: Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, 1925–1929

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pp. 69-109

Beginning in the early years of the century, writers in São Paulo’s black press invoked Brazil’s traditions of racial fraternity in an attempt to constitute an alternate public consciousness. This consciousness would oppose scientific racism, whitening ideologies, racist immigration policies, and the racism of immigrants ...

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3. Nationals: Salvador da Bahia and São Paulo, 1930–1945

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pp. 110-150

During the First Republic, the whitening ideologies that valued European immigrants above black workers had turned the word nacional into a derisive euphemism for pretos and pardos. To be a “national” in the Republic, as writers in São Paulo’s black press ruefully pointed out time and again, was essentially ...

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4. Democracy: São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, 1945–1950

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pp. 151-195

In 1945 growing opposition in Brazil helped bring down Getúlio Vargas’s dictatorship, inaugurating a Second Republic (1946–64) that deepened and expanded Brazil’s historically weak democratic institutions.1 This transformation coincided with the Allied victory in World War II, which brought the end of totalitarian ...

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5. Difference: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador da Bahia, 1950–1964

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pp. 196-244

The language of an antiracist, unified Brazilian identity permeated Brazilian public life so thoroughly in the years following the return of democracy in 1945 that black organizations themselves soon came under suspicion as racist entities. In July 1949 a writer in Rio’s Diário Carioca accused black thinkers of sowing ...

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6. Decolonization: Rio de Janeiro, Salvador da Bahia, and São Paulo, 1964–1985

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pp. 245-296

Until 1964 most black thinkers remained committed to turning the dominant idea of racial democracy to their advantage, refining and contesting its meanings in a democratic public sphere. This situation changed drastically after the military coup in late March of that year. The coup put an end to the democratic ...

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Epilogue: Brazil, 1985 to the New Century

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pp. 297-302

Against the backdrop of military dictatorship, a new generation of black thinkers and activists across Brazil revised their relationship with dominant racial ideologies, rejecting the shared symbols that, in different iterations, had served as the centerpiece of black politics since the First Republic. After 1985 the return ...


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pp. 303-353


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pp. 355-375


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pp. 377-396

E-ISBN-13: 9781469603186
E-ISBN-10: 1469603187
Print-ISBN-13: 9780807871713
Print-ISBN-10: 0807871710

Page Count: 416
Illustrations: 2 line drawings, 1 map
Publication Year: 2011