Defending White Democracy
The Making of a Segregationist Movement and the Remaking of Racial Politics, 1936-1965
Publication Year: 2011
As Ward shows, years before "segregationist" became a badge of honor for civil rights opponents, many white southerners resisted racial change at every turn--launching a preemptive campaign aimed at preserving a social order that they saw as under siege. By the time of the Brown decision, segregationists had amassed an arsenal of tested tactics and arguments to deploy against the civil rights movement in the coming battles. Connecting the racial controversies of the New Deal era to the more familiar confrontations of the 1950s and 1960s, Ward uncovers a parallel history of segregationist opposition that mirrors the new focus on the long civil rights movement and raises troubling questions about the enduring influence of segregation's defenders.
Published by: The University of North Carolina Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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...ter backwards so that his students at South Granville High School would finally make it past the Civil War. I have been stuck in the twentieth cen-tury ever since. Down the road from Creedmoor, I spent as much time as possible in the embarrassment of riches that is the Duke History Depart-ment. John Herd Thompson, Raymond Gavins, Sydney Nathans, Charles ...
Introduction: A Question That Will Not Stay Settled
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Graves, the civil rights movement arrived during World War II. And he was not happy about it. The son of a prominent Georgia newspaperman and a great- grandnephew of John C. Calhoun, Graves watched nervously as the black press launched a “Double V” campaign—victory over fascism abroad and racial discrimination at home—in the months following Pearl ...
1 Agitating Falsely the Race Problem
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Atlanta’s streets. They hoped to catch a glimpse of their next president. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, just two weeks shy of a landslide victory over sitting president Herbert Hoover, waved at the surging crowd from the back seat of a convertible. The New York governor’s visit to Atlanta, ac-cording to a local newsman, had attracted “the greatest multitude ever ...
2 The White South’s “Double V”
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...the NAACP proclaimed itself “On Guard Against Racial Discrimination.” Under a picture of black men in uniform, an NAACP pamphlet announced, “if racial discrimination under Hitler is wrong, racial discrimination in America is wrong.” The war effort, civil rights activists asserted, necessi-tated a domestic drive to stamp out segregation. “The dictator armies may ...
3 From White Supremacists to “Segregationists”
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...a warning for his fellow Mississippians. With the “joy and happiness of the prodigal son returning to loved ones and the old homestead,” the sena-tor stood before a joint session of the state legislature. After reflecting on his long and stormy tenure in state politics, the former governor assured the packed gallery and a radio audience of ultimate victory over the Axis. ...
4 Nationalizing Race and Southernizing Freedom
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...brothers staggered out of the Ritz Café in Athens, Alabama. Ben, a recently discharged veteran, and his younger brother Roy, an active- duty Army pri-vate, were already drunk. As they stumbled onto the street, the Massey boys collided with L. C. Horton, a black World War II veteran. An argu-ment ensued. It ended when Horton knocked Ben Massey to the ground ...
5 The Rhetoric of Responsible Resistance
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...1948, the defenders of segregation looked to South Carolina for a glimpse of Jim Crow’s future. “Of all the primary campaigns,” Atlanta newspaper-man Ralph McGill reported in 1950, “no other was as strange to the South as that of James Francis Byrnes.” Gone were the demagogue theatrics, the “jug bands,” the “hillbilly grammar,” and a host of other “shabby old po-...
6 The Southern “Minority” and the Silent Majority
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...1950s, segregationist organizations seemed to sprout up overnight. The Brown decision shook activists out of their complacency and, in a few cases, their careers. After the Supreme Court decision, Citizens’ Council founder Robert Patterson left his job managing a Mississippi Delta planta-tion to fight integration full- time. Describing his segregationist epiphany ...
Epilogue: A Segregationist “Sense of History”
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Rights Act, the congressional clash over the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was relatively tame. The real drama had already occurred in Selma, seat of an Alabama Black Belt county where less than 2 percent of the black majority had successfully registered to vote prior to the bill’s passage. In some neighboring counties, no African Americans had voted since Reconstruc-...
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Page Count: 264
Illustrations: 2 line drawings, 1 map
Publication Year: 2011