The Fourth Eye
M ori Media in Aotearoa New Zealand
Publication Year: 2013
From the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between Indigenous and settler cultures to the emergence of the first-ever state-funded Māori television network, New Zealand has been a hotbed of Indigenous concerns. Given its history of colonization, coping with biculturalism is central to New Zealand life. Much of this “bicultural drama” plays out in the media and is molded by an anxiety surrounding the ongoing struggle over citizenship rights that is seated within the politics of recognition. The Fourth Eye brings together Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars to provide a critical and comprehensive account of the intricate and complex relationship between the media and Māori culture.
Examining the Indigenous mediascape, The Fourth Eye shows how Māori filmmakers, actors, and media producers have depicted conflicts over citizenship rights and negotiated the representation of Indigenous people. From nineteenth-century Māori-language newspapers to contemporary Māori film and television, the contributors explore a variety of media forms including magazine cover stories, print advertisements, commercial images, and current Māori-language newspapers to illustrate the construction, expression, and production of indigeneity through media.
Focusing on New Zealand as a case study, the authors address the broader question: what is Indigenous media? While engaging with distinct themes such as the misrepresentation of Māori people in the media, access of Indigenous communities to media technologies, and the use of media for activism, the essays in this much-needed new collection articulate an Indigenous media landscape that converses with issues that reach far beyond New Zealand.
Contributors: Sue Abel, U of Auckland; Joost de Bruin, Victoria U of Wellington; Suzanne Duncan, U of Otago; Kevin Fisher, U of Otago; Allen Meek, Massey U; Lachy Paterson, U of Otago; Chris Prentice, U of Otago; Jay Scherer, U of Alberta; Jo Smith, Victoria U of Wellington; April Strickland; Stephen Turner, U of Auckland.
Published by: University of Minnesota Press
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Map 1. Map of the North Island showing iwi boundaries. Designed by Allan Kynaston. Source: Brendan Hokowhitu et al., Indigenous Identity and Re sis tance (Dunedin: Otago University Press, Map 2. Map of the South Island showing iwi boundaries. Designed by Allan Kynaston. Source: Brendan Hokowhitu et al., Indigenous Identity and Re sis tance (Dunedin: Otago University Press, Map 3. Map of the North Island showing principal towns, cities, and regions. Source: Geoffrey Rice, ...
Introduction. Fourth Eye: The Indigenous Mediascape in Aotearoa New Zealand
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Our language has been brought to the very brink of extinction, more than anything else by the infl uence of monolingual broadcasting. . . . So broadcasting has an enor-mous responsibility in the recovery of a language it has helped to push towards —Derek Fox, “Honouring the Treaty: Indigenous Tele vi sion in Aotearoa”As the first publication of its kind on Indigenous media in Aotearoa New ...
Part I. Mediated Indigeneity: Representing the Indigenous Other
1. Governing Indigenous Sovereignty: Biopolitics and the “Terror Raids” in New Zealand
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On March 21, 2012, the New Zealand Herald reported that the jury in the trial of Tame Iti, Emily Bailey, Te Rangikaiwhiria Kemara, and Urs Signer, the four individuals charged by the Crown for allegedly belonging to an or ga nized criminal group, was unable to come to a decision on, this, the main charge.1 They did however decide that the four individuals were guilty on fi rearms charges. The report, appearing in New ...
2. Postcolonial Trauma: Child Abuse, Genocide, and Journalism in New Zealand
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In New Zealand, as in many other nations, the notion of a collective experience of trauma has allowed different understandings of history, identity, and social policy to be articulated and contested. When the then Labour Party member of Parliament (MP) and associate minister of health (now coleader of the Maori Party) Tariana Turia pro-posed in August 2000 that Maori suffered from “Post Colonial Traumatic Stress Dis-...
3. Promotional Culture and Indigenous Identity: Trading the Other
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In 2007, Italian truck manufacturer Iveco, a multinational corporation with little or no connection to the sport of rugby union (or to New Zealand for that matter), became the offi cial global sponsor of the All Blacks. Having won over 75 percent of all rugby matches that they have played since 1903, and having most recently won the 2011 Rugby World Cup— a tournament that was hosted by New Zealand, and, incidentally, ...
4. Viewing against the Grain: Postcolonial Remediation in Rain of the Children
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In the contemporary postcolonial environment, any non- Indigenous fi lmmaker who undertakes the task of engaging with Indigenous material must recon-cile their methods with Homi Bhabha’s description of the construction of the colo-nized by the colonizer as “a site of dreams, images, fantasies, myths, obsessions and requirements.”1 Often, as in the case of Pakeha (white New Zealander) fi lmmaker Vin-...
5. Consume or Be Consumed: Targeting Māori Consumers in Print Media
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Throughout the world Indigenous populations have had to reckon with the forces of “progress” and “national” unifi cation. The results have been both destructive and in-ventive. Many traditions, languages, cosmologies, and values are lost, some literally murdered; but much has simultaneously been invented and revived in complex, op-positional contexts. . . . Something more ambiguous and historically complex has ...
Part II. Indigenous Media: Emergence, Struggles, and Interventions
6. Theorizing Indigenous Media
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...[Maori] are aware of how negatively we are portrayed in tele vi sion, in fi lm and in newspapers . . . [and] are becoming increasingly aware that at some stage in this media game, we must take control of our own image . . . only when we do that, only when we have some mea sure of self- determination about how we appear in the me-dia will the truth be told about us. Only when we have control of our image will we be ...
7. Te Hokioi and the Legitimization of the Māori Nation
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In 1861, two central North Island Maori chiefs from the Waikato, Wiremu Toetoe and Te Hemara Rerehau, returned from a sojourn in Vienna where they were guests of the Austro- Hungarian authorities. While there they worked for nine months at a printing establishment and, on their departure, received the gift of a printing press from the Austro- Hungarian emperor.1 Later, this press allowed the Kingitanga (Maori King ...
8. Barry Barclay’s Te Rua: The Unmanned Camera and Māori Political Activism
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I am cinema- eye—I am a mechanical eye. I, a machine, show a world such as only In the first scene of Te Rua— Barry Barclay’s seminal 1991 fi lm about Maori rights and responsibilities— a man in a trench coat walks on a beach, away from the camera and toward the water. It is a gray rainy day, and his body is obscured by the inclement weather. He turns and addresses the camera. “Ready?” he asks. He then ...
9. Reflections on Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema
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Barry Barclay was a rare fi lmmaker, writer, and thinker. His fi lmwork, writings, and talks can hardly be conceived in de pen dently, so I will address the thinking that coheres in all his activity. Due to his seminal fi lmwork, notably the made- for- television Tangata Whenua series (1974) and the world’s fi rst Indigenous “feature,” Ngati (1987), and to his book Our Own Image,1 Barclay is a founding fi gure of Indig-...
Part III. Māori Television: Nation, Culture, and Identity
10. The Māori Television Service and Questions of Culture
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The advent in 2004 of the free- to- air Maori Tele vi sion Ser vice (MTS) channel in New Zealand marked an important development in Maori cultural politics and in the bicultural nation’s televisual democracy. While Maori constitute around 15 percent (and growing) of the population, more compelling than the statistical argument for greater repre sen ta tion in broadcast media has been the notion of “partnership” of ...
11. Māori Television, Anzac Day, and Constructing “Nationhood”
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The eleven years which have elapsed since the Hokowhitu a Tu sailed from these shores for Egypt and Gallipoli have given us the length and breadth of vision needful to estimate at its full value not only the ser vice which our Maori people gave to their country and to their allies but also the refl ex of that ser vice on the position of the Maori as a social and po liti cal entity in the life of New Zealand....
12. Indigeneity and Cultural Belonging in Survivor- Styled Reality Television from New Zealand
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This chapter examines the different ways in which two recent New Zealand tele vi sion programs draw upon global reality tele vi sion formats to articulate dis-courses of indigeneity and cultural belonging in New Zealand. By examining how the TV3 outdoor challenge program The Summit and Maori Tele vi sion’s language competition program Waka Reo share aspects of the American reality tele vi sion ...
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We began conceiving the idea for this book some years ago; we discussed it with col-leagues, friends, and whanau before committing ourselves to it. We found it urgent to bring together a variety of voices to interrogate the complex and intricate relationship between the Indigenous peoples in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the media.Numerous people and institutions have, in one way or another, contributed to ...
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Page Count: 312
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Indigenous Americas