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The Fourth Eye

M ori Media in Aotearoa New Zealand

Brendan Hokowhitu

Publication Year: 2013

From the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between Indigenous and settler cultures to the emergence of the first-ever state-funded Māori television network, New Zealand has been a hotbed of Indigenous concerns. Given its history of colonization, coping with biculturalism is central to New Zealand life. Much of this “bicultural drama” plays out in the media and is molded by an anxiety surrounding the ongoing struggle over citizenship rights that is seated within the politics of recognition. The Fourth Eye brings together Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars to provide a critical and comprehensive account of the intricate and complex relationship between the media and Māori culture.

Examining the Indigenous mediascape, The Fourth Eye shows how Māori filmmakers, actors, and media producers have depicted conflicts over citizenship rights and negotiated the representation of Indigenous people. From nineteenth-century Māori-language newspapers to contemporary Māori film and television, the contributors explore a variety of media forms including magazine cover stories, print advertisements, commercial images, and current Māori-language newspapers to illustrate the construction, expression, and production of indigeneity through media.

Focusing on New Zealand as a case study, the authors address the broader question: what is Indigenous media? While engaging with distinct themes such as the misrepresentation of Māori people in the media, access of Indigenous communities to media technologies, and the use of media for activism, the essays in this much-needed new collection articulate an Indigenous media landscape that converses with issues that reach far beyond New Zealand.

Contributors: Sue Abel, U of Auckland; Joost de Bruin, Victoria U of Wellington; Suzanne Duncan, U of Otago; Kevin Fisher, U of Otago; Allen Meek, Massey U; Lachy Paterson, U of Otago; Chris Prentice, U of Otago; Jay Scherer, U of Alberta; Jo Smith, Victoria U of Wellington; April Strickland; Stephen Turner, U of Auckland.

Published by: University of Minnesota Press

Series: Indigenous Americas


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pp. 1-7


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pp. 8-9


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pp. ix-xiv

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Introduction. Fourth Eye: The Indigenous Mediascape in Aotearoa New Zealand

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pp. xv-l

...approach to the relatively distinct fields of Media Studies and Indigenous Studies. It contributes to both fields by drawing upon key debates, concepts, and theoretical approaches that mark them, while suggesting that each discipline has much to offer the other, and through this, proposes a connection between the disciplines to shore...

Part I. Mediated Indigeneity: Representing the Indigenous Other

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1. Governing Indigenous Sovereignty: Biopolitics and the “Terror Raids” in New Zealand

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pp. 3-24

...They did however decide that the four individuals were guilty on firearms charges. The report, appearing in New Zealand’s largest circulating broadsheet paper, which also enjoys a high web and mobile app presence, was entitled “Urewera Verdict: Freedom, for Now.” The report...

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2. Postcolonial Trauma: Child Abuse, Genocide, and Journalism in New Zealand

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pp. 25-41

...trauma has allowed different understandings of history, identity, and social policy to be articulated and contested. When the then Labour Party member of Parliament (MP) and associate minister of health (now coleader of the Maori Party) Tariana Turia proposed in August 2000 that Maori suffered from “Post Colonial Traumatic Stress Disorder...

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3. Promotional Culture and Indigenous Identity: Trading the Other

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pp. 42-59

...no connection to the sport of rugby union (or to New Zealand for that matter), became the offi cial global sponsor of the All Blacks. Having won over 75 percent of all rugby matches that they have played since 1903, and having most recently won the 2011 Rugby World Cup— a tournament that was hosted by New Zealand, and, incidentally, relied heavily on elements of Maori culture for promotional purposes— the All Blacks...

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4. Viewing against the Grain: Postcolonial Remediation in Rain of the Children

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pp. 60-75

...any non-Indigenous filmmaker who undertakes the task of engaging with Indigenous material must reconcile their methods with Homi Bhabha’s description of the construction of the colonized by the colonizer as “a site of dreams, images, fantasies, myths, obsessions and requirements...

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5. Consume or Be Consumed: Targeting Māori Consumers in Print Media

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pp. 76-98

...Marketing communication relies heavily on visual representation to produce meaning. Representation is used to create an image of the product or service by linking brands to an identity of their own. These representations often replace an actual experience, that is, representations can entice people into believing they have knowledge of something that they have no experience of, which, in turn, influences future experience...

Part II. Indigenous Media: Emergence, Struggles, and Interventions

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6. Theorizing Indigenous Media

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pp. 101-123

...Second, the researchers “put the means of production and representation into the hands of indigenous people . . . teaching filmmaking to young Navajo students without the conventions of western production and editing, to see if their films would reflect a distinctively Navajo film worldview...

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7. Te Hokioi and the Legitimization of the Māori Nation

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pp. 124-142

...It then looks at concepts of racial/ethnic difference and how the way Maori imagined themselves changed after European contact, including the visualization of a Maori nation. In particular this study investigates Te Hokioi’s articulation of ethnicity and the legitimization of power that it disseminated in support of the concept of an in de pen dent Maori nation....

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8. Barry Barclay’s Te Rua: The Unmanned Camera and Māori Political Activism

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pp. 143-161

...rights and responsibilities— a man in a trench coat walks on a beach, away from the camera and toward the water. It is a gray rainy day, and his body is obscured by the inclement weather. He turns and addresses the camera. “Ready?” he asks. He then takes a few more steps toward the water, turns to the camera once again, and says, “Is it okay?” The film cuts to an unmanned camera. Rain and heavy mist blow past it. An...

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9. Reflections on Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema

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pp. 162-178

...He leaves behind a radical and positive view of the future of New Zealand, couched as was his habit in filmic terms. It is not just the critical energy and exuberance that will be missed by those who knew him. He was a phi los opher of place, rare in a new country. Philosophically minded types may not be the kind of people you need to build a new society, but it is the kind of people you need if...

Part III. Māori Television: Nation, Culture, and Identity

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10. The Māori Television Service and Questions of Culture

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pp. 181-200

...New Zealand marked an important development in Maori cultural politics and in the bicultural nation’s televisual democracy. While Maori constitute around 15 percent (and growing) of the population, more compelling than the statistical argument for greater representation in broadcast media has been the notion of “partnership” of...

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11. Māori Television, Anzac Day, and Constructing “Nationhood”

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pp. 201-215

...from different ethnic groups, nevertheless resonate with each other in a way that provides a useful starting point for an examination of the role that Maori Television’s annual coverage of Anzac Day plays both in the establishment of Maori Television as an integral part of the New Zealand mediascape and in the ongoing construction of what it means to be a “New Zealander.” This examination is based on an analysis...

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12. Indigeneity and Cultural Belonging in Survivor- Styled Reality Television from New Zealand

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pp. 216-234

...reveals the constitutive role that global audiovisual culture plays in the production of discourses of indigeneity, localness, and New Zealand national identity. By acknowledging the productive nature of reality television (as a genre that produces, regulates, and intervenes in reality as much as it reflects existing sociocultural phenomena), this chapter identifies the mobile and mutable nature of discourses...

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pp. 235-236

...Numerous people and institutions have, in one way or another, contributed to writing this book. It is to them that the book owes its intellectual debt. We extend our thanks and gratitude, first and foremost, to Dr. Anna Petersen, whose dedication, persistence, wealth of editorial experience, and patience were invaluable to seeing this...


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pp. 237-240


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pp. 241-251

E-ISBN-13: 9781452941745
E-ISBN-10: 1452941742
Print-ISBN-13: 9780816681044

Page Count: 312
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: Indigenous Americas