Shaping Gender Policy in Turkey
Grassroots Women Activists, the European Union, and the Turkish State
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: State University of New York Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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List of Tables
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List of Abbreviations
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This book benefits greatly from the participation of a dedicated group of activist women in my research. I first and foremost thank these activists for sharing their experiences with me. Without their contribution this book would have been partial. I want to acknowledge the hard-working...
1. Conceptualizing the Actors’ Roles
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True to the accounts of those feminist activists from postsocialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe, pressured by the European Union (EU), Turkey has been undergoing an economic, political, and legal transformation in order to qualify for admission to the EU. Taking advantage...
2. Gender Equality, Women’s Rights, and Stipulations within the Enlarging EU
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In this chapter, I provide a historical account of the EU gender equality policy discourse and its relationship to women’s rights and citizenship. This discourse influences the nature of gender politics not only in EU members, but also in candidate countries like Turkey. Gender is an...
3. Before the 1999 Helsinki Summit: The State’s Gender Regime in Turkey
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Recognizing that internal gender regimes of countries matter when adapting European gender equality norms to national settings (Liebert 2003), this chapter looks at the structure of the gender regime in Turkey before the Helsinki Summit of 1999, the moment when Turkey was...
4. Active Citizenship: Women’s Collective Response to the State’s Gender Regime in Turkey, 1980–1999
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Attesting to the point that women’s movements are “embedded in particular histories and geographies” (Ray 1999, 159), the contradiction within the state’s approach to women, reflected in legal discourse and its implications for women’s lives prompted a group of women to launch a feminist...
5. Aftermath of the 1999 Helsinki Summit: The Role of the EU and the Turkish State in Changing Gender Policies in Turkey
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It was after the Helsinki Summit of 1999 when the EU announced the official candidate status of Turkey for EU membership that a window of political opportunity opened for Turkish feminists to be influential in changing gender policies. This chapter explains the process in which the...
6. Women’s Grassroots Activism in Changing Gender Policies after the 1999 Helsinki Summit
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As Zacharias puts it, “emerging reimaginings and shifts in gender politics” (2001, 31) influence the notions of women’s citizenship and agency. The EU membership process that prospered after the 1999 Helsinki Summit where Turkey was recognized by the EU as an official candidate...
7. Conclusion: Sustained-Pressure in Shifting Winds
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Turkey’s candidacy for EU membership has resulted in structural changes on multiple grounds including gender policies. This book has shed some light on the links among the EU, the Turkish state, and women grassroots activists by explaining the specifics of the way in which...
Appendix A: Interviews
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I interviewed representatives of fourteen women’s organizations in the summers of 2007 and 2008. Ten of these organizations had secular feminist, three had Kemalist, and one had Islamist orientation. I made the initial contact with the participants through phone and email to ask for...
Appendix B: Names of Women’s Organizations and Journals in Turkish and English
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Page Count: 187
Publication Year: 2013