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Papers of the Fortieth Algonquian Conference

Actes du Congrès des Algonquinistes

Karl S. Hele, J. Randolph Valentine

Publication Year: 2012

Papers of the fortieth Algonquian Conference held at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities in October 2008. For nearly half a century, the papers of the Algonquian Conference have served as the primary source of peer-reviewed scholarship addressing topics related to the languages and societies of Algonquian peoples. Contributions, which are peer-reviewed submissions presented at the annual conference, represent an assortment of humanities and social science disciplines, including archeology, cultural anthropology, history, ethnohistory, linguistics, literary studies, Native studies, social work, film, and countless others. Both theoretical and descriptive approaches are welcomed, and submissions often provide previously unpublished data from historical and contemporary sources, or novel theoretical insights based on firsthand research. The research is commonly interdisciplinary in scope and the papers are filled with contributions presenting fresh research from a broad array of researchers and writers. These papers are essential reading for those interested in Algonquian world views, cultures, history, and languages. They build bridges among a large international group of people who write in different disciplines. Scholars in linguistics, anthropology, history, education, and other fields are brought together in one vital community, thanks to these publications.

Published by: State University of New York Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. 2-5

Contents, Preface,

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pp. v-viii

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“Language Keepers”: The Role of the Facilitator in Documenting Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Group Discourse

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pp. 1-12

Language Keepers is an innovative approach combining descriptive linguistics, documentary video, and community outreach to organize speaker groups to use their first language in traditional and contemporary activities while recording it for language learning, dictionary development, research, cultural transmission, and revival. ...

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A Look at ASSM Manuscript #34

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pp. 13-39

This paper is a fairly detailed look at ASSM Manuscript 34, Grammaire algonquine en latin (‘Algonquin grammar in Latin’), one of the many Algonquin manuscripts in the Sulpician Archives in Montréal.1 It is one of the shortest manuscripts I have seen in the archives to date, only fifteen pages in length, ...

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White Dogs, Black Bears, and Ghost Gamblers: Two Late Woodland Midewiwin Aspects from Ontario

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pp. 40-58

Historians and ethnographers have debated the antiquity of the Midewiwin. Entrenched in historical discourse is Hickerson’s (1962, 1970) theory that the Midewiwin was a recent native resistance movement, a socio-evolutionary response to the changing culture patterns resulting from culture contact with Europeans. ...

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Why Did the Catholic Cult of Saints Not Function among the Algonquians?

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pp. 59-78

What is left of the Catholic heritage in Quebec’s Algonquian communities? This question is not only interesting for researchers studying belief systems, but also for those who follow and analyze Algonquian material heritage and the way in which they present their cultures to others. In fact, visitors to Algonquian communities are usually first shown the local church, ...

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As for Me and My House: Zhaawanaash and Methodism at Berens River, 1874–1883

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pp. 79-96

When Canada’s numbered treaties were signed, they named certain Aboriginal men as chiefs, giving them a place in Canadian history. Sometimes a man who was already a leader of his community retained and enhanced his position in becoming a treaty chief, as did Tapastanum of the Cree community of Pimicikamak (Cross Lake) ...

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The Status of Blackfoot /s/ Analyzed in Optimality Theory

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pp. 97-135

In this paper I seek to explain the peculiar distribution of /s/ in Blackfoot, viz., /s/ is the only phoneme that can occur in complex onsets, and geminate /ss/ is the only geminate that can occur between consonants.1 The data presented herein comes from Frantz and Russell (1995), which is currently the most widely used dictionary of Blackfoot ...

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Transforming Racism and the Construction of Zhaaganaash-Whiteness in Critical Race Theory and Indigenous Knowledge

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pp. 136-150

This paper has emerged from my recent work with the Ontario Urban Aboriginal Task Force (UATF) and as a result of some of the challenges that I have experienced as a new faculty member with the Native Studies department at the University of Sudbury. ...

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Cree Syllabic Fonts: Development, Compatibility, and Usage in the Digital World

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pp. 151-170

Like other minority languages, but maybe even more so, Aboriginal languages are facing challenges in encountering information technology (henceforth IT). Our experience in helping develop resources for typing in Cree syllabics in the IT area (see also Jancewicz and Junker 2002) has led us to explore the following questions: ...

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Determinants of Split Intransitivity in Blackfoot: Evidence from Verbs of Emission

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pp. 171-185

According to Perlmutter’s (1978) Unaccusativity Hypothesis, intransitive verbs can be divided into two classes: UNACCUSATIVE verbs, which have an underlying internal argument, such as a theme or patient, and UNERGATIVE verbs, which have an underlying external argument, such as an agent. ...

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“I heart this camp”: Participant Perspectives within the Story of Miami Youth Camps

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pp. 186-209

The quotation given above is an observation made by a fourteen-year-old Miami girl at the conclusion of an annual Miami language and culture youth summer camp in 2008. Within her statement are three important themes that have emerged from the camp setting. First, there is the question of defining and understanding myaamionki (literally ‘Miami place’),1 ...

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Language Keepers: A Documentary Film Process for Stimulating Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Documentation and Revival

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pp. 210-222

This paper describes a National Science Foundation Endangered Language Initiative entitled “Language Keepers: Audio Visual Documentation of Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Group Discourse Centered on Historic Places as a Data Source for Dictionary Expansion, Linguistic Analysis, and Teaching Resources.” ...

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Tapastanum: “A Noted Conjurer for Many Years, Who Long Resisted the Teachings of Christianity”

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pp. 223-240

On 24 September 1875, Lieutenant Governor Alexander Morris and his party aboard the steamer Colvile arrived at Norway House, in what is today Manitoba. Morris was expecting to negotiate Treaty 5 with a single group of Aboriginal people. He was also expecting to negotiate for a specific area, as defined in the orders he had received from the Privy Council. ...

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Gookooko’oog: Owls and Their Role in Anishinaabe Culture

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pp. 241-266

Over the last eight years, I have encountered Anishinaabeg1 who are terrified of owls. In some cases, this fear is so engrained in their consciousnesses that they are afraid to be in the same room with even the image of an owl. Some of these individuals declare that they were “meant to die” or that they “are cursed” when they see an owl. ...

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Héritage des Traits Morphologiques φ et δ en Ojibwe

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pp. 267-287

Le but de cet article est de démontrer que les traits φ ne sont pas les seuls traits qui peuvent être hérités de C0 à T0 (cf. Chomsky 2008, Richards 2007). En effet, nous proposons que T0 peut également hériter de la tête C0 des traits δ (discursifs/associés au discours). Ces traits sont des traits formels à part entière et, même s’il y a des différences notables entre les deux types de traits, ...

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The 1859 New Year’s Day Fight: Race, Place, Marriage, Gender, and Status in Western James Bay

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pp. 288-309

Many a dance was held in Moose Factory’s old carpentry shop, where Hudson’s Bay Company ships were built and, later, treaty gatherings were sometimes held. Wedding dances and special holidays provided an occasion to celebrate and relax at this trading post, established by the HBC in 1673. ...

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Reflections on the Annual Manitoba Indian and Métis Conferences of the Early 1960s

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pp. 310-325

Beginning in 1954, the Welfare Council of Winnipeg organized annual conferences devoted to providing “an opportunity for people of Indian origin and those of non-Indian origin to join together in discussing problems of mutual concern” (Welfare Council of Greater Winnipeg1 1961:i). ...

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Does the Integration of Algonquian Rituals in Catholic Churches Imply a Move Toward Decolonization?

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pp. 326-345

All Quebec Natives were Christianized. Not all remained followers of the faith in which they were evangelized, but most adopted Christian ritual gestures, such as making the sign of the cross or kneeling to pray, or the attitude of respect and recollection in a sacred place (serious demeanor, head down). ...

Weweni Nd’nisidotami Ezhi-Anishinaabebiigeyaang—Carefully We Understand How We Write Anishinaabemowin

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pp. 346-357

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Algonquian Trade Languages Revisited

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pp. 358-369

The long-standing conventional wisdom regarding the languages of huntergatherers was that their societies have so little sociological differentiation that there are no grounds for particular hunter-gatherer languages or particular varieties of hunter-gatherer languages to have sufficient prestige to function as trade languages. ...

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Reviving Manhood: Algonquian Masculinity and Christianity Following the First Great Awakening in Southern New England

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pp. 370-394

On what he described as a “stormy and very uncomfortable day” in September of 1772, Mohegan minister Samson Occom stood before a crowd of thousands at the First Congregational Church in New Haven, Connecticut and delivered the execution sermon for Moses Paul, a Wampanoag man slated to be hanged later that day. ...

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Cree Pentecostalism and Its Others

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pp. 395-419

In many Aboriginal communities of northern Alberta and elsewhere, Pentecostalism is the preeminent religious movement. This religion’s supposedly anticultural (Dombrowski 2001) stance would appear to be at odds with the culturally conservative nature of many such communities in most other respects.1 ...

Errata for PAC 39

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pp. 419-420


E-ISBN-13: 9781438444956
Print-ISBN-13: 9781438444963

Page Count: 416
Publication Year: 2012