Magdalenian Household, The
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: State University of New York Press
The Magdalenian House Hold: Unraveling Domesticity
The Magdalenian House Hold: Unraveling Domesticity
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Prefacing the Household
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This book originated with a set of conversations that took place in Paris between Francoise Audouze and Ezra Zubrow in 2002 when Ezra Zubrow was a visiting fellow at CNRS’s Maison Rene Ginouve’ Archéologie and Ethnologie. The many glasses of wine along the quartier Saint Germain and dinners in Meudon resulted in 2003 with Ezra Zubrow receiving a grant from NSF for studying “The Origins of Domesticity in the Late Upper Paleolithic” (0314411)...
Introduction: Domesticity Expressed
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Home and family are central to the human experience. We know little about the origins of this basic social organization for humans and the development of what we know today as domesticity. Domesticity has a very long past but archaeological evidence is missing for most of the millennia. Archaeological levels in caves represent such complex palimpsests that they cannot be used to reconstruct the spatial aspect of social life...
Part I: Technology and Demography
Chapter One: Technology and Demographics: An Introduction
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The primary question addressed in this volume involves domestic organization in the Magdalenian of the Paris Basin. This comprises fundamental ideas about human society, how people relate to one another in economic, social, and personal ways. It implies demography, the make-up of the social group, and how we might see this from the archaeological record. Much of our knowledge about the organization of Paleolithic hunters’ campsites...
Chapter Two: The Magdalenian Site of Verberie (Le Buisson Campin): An Overview
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Several chapters in this volume focus on the Magdalenian site of Verberie because the successive living fl oors yielded by this open-air site are particularly adapted to question domesticity in Upper Palaeolithic settlements. Both the excellent preservation of lithic and organic remains, and of the spatial organization...
Chapter Three: Fauna and Site Structure at Verberie: Implications for Domesticity and Demography
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The content and configuration of faunal remains have been noted as having more directly readable information about the organization of direct subsistence activities activity, and signifi cant implications for the demography and social organization for performing those tasks. This chapter shall focus on that relationship, keeping in mind, however, that the integration with other classes...
Chapter Four: Technologie Lithique � Verberie: Production Domestique et Apprentissage
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Au terme de vingt-cinq années de fouilles minutieuses au Buisson Campin, 1 sept à huit niveaux d’occupations magdaléniennes successives ont été découverts (Audouze 2006). Datés du Bölling (entre 14000 et 12000 BP cal) l’industrie lithique est attribuable au Magdalénien fi nal. À l’instar des autres sites magdaléniens du Bassin parisien, le débitage est effectué selon un mode de production laminaire...
Chapter Five: Utilisation et Transformation des Mati�res Osseuses au Buisson Campin (Verberie, Oise)
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Cerner la nature du site, débattre de l’organisation sociale des groupes qui y ont vécu et discuter de son intégration au “schéma” magdalénien du Bassin parisien conduit à s’interroger sur la nature domestique ou spécialisée du campement. Résoudre cette question passe en partie par la prise en compte de l’abondance et de la variété des vestiges qui diffèrent selon la durée d’occupation et la diversité des activités pratiquées....
Chapter Six: Pincevent and Verberie Rocks and Hearths: A Tentative Summary/ Preliminary Analysis
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As is often the case for the open air Paleolithic sites of the Paris Basin, at Pincevent Level IV-0 and Verberie Level II-1 heated rocks represent a large part of the remains discovered. Whether they were found alone or within fire structures, meaning “any kind of group of artifacts wearing evidence of fire damage” (Leroi-Gourhan 1973), these rocks testify to varied daily technical activities...
Part II: Social Organization
Chapter Seven: Introduction to Domesticity and Spatial Organization
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Spatial organization is an essential entry to domesticity in hunter-gatherers’ camps since there are no buildings to materialize the family social organization. The concepts developed by Amos Rapoport (1978; 1990:11–13; 1999) are particularly adapted to our goal. He defines the inhabited spatial environment as organized by a system of activities in a system of settings that are in turn organized by fixed-feature elements (building, wall, floors)...
Chapter Eight: Archaeology of Equality: Magdalenian Economy
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This chapter has an unusual rationale and a long genesis. Over the last several decades I have had an ancillary career in labor—first as a member, then as vice president and fi nally a year ago as the elected president of the Buffalo Center Chapter of the United University Professions. It is the largest chapter of the largest higher education union in the United States. The university is a “union shop,” which means that unlike a “closed shop”...
Chapter Nine: GIS of Verberie: Spatial Definition of the Habitation Units
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In this chapter I will be discussing an approach that begins with small-scale intrasite studies that can be linked together to create site occupation models. Specifically, this chapter explores the utility of GIS techniques in visualizing spatial data at these various scales. The spatial structure of a Paleolithic site must be understood at various levels, ranging from the most constrained areas, the individual zones of activity, to the site as a whole...
Chapter Ten: Domesticity and Spatial Organization at Verberie
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It is by identifying a set of activities in a set of spaces that one gets access to huntergatherers domesticity, as argued in the introduction. The previous chapters on Verberie in this volume answer decisive questions about the organization of several activities: hunting, animal food consuming and curing, and the places where they were performed (J. G. Enloe), the organization of fl int knapping and lithic tools production, the fl int workshops and refuse areas and their makers (F. Janny)...
Chapter Eleven: Espaces et Habitats au Tardiglaciairedans le Bassin Parisien: Une Illustration avec les Gisements Magdalenien de Pincevent et Azilien du Closeau
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Depuis le d�but des ann�es 90, un nouvel axe de recherche concerne les groupes du Tardiglaciaire imm�diatement post�rieurs au Magdal�nien, les Aziliens et leurs successeurs qui ont occup� le paysage entre la fi n du B�lling et le d�but du Pr�bor�al (Valentin 1995). La d�couverte du gisement du Closeau (Rueil-Malmaison, Hauts-de-Seine) en 1994 (Bodu 1998, 2000) a nettement contribu� � faire �voluer notre connaissance de ces derni�res populations du Pal�olithique...
Chapter Twelve: Éléments d’une Organisation Sociale Magdalénienne à Étiolles Du Savoir-faireau Statut Social des Personnes
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L’organisation sociale d’un groupe de chasseurs-cueilleurs paléolithiques, tels les Magdaléniens d’Étiolles (Essonne, France), semble de prime abord assez peu accessible. Certes, mais outre que l’on peut déjà dessiner à grands traits le cadre interprétatif par analogie actualiste, celui d’une société nomade et présumée égalitaire, les recherches de ces dernières décennies ont néanmoins développé des approches méthodologiques aptes à saisir au moins des éléments de cette organisation. Mieux, nous proposons, dans ce chapitre, de montrer que cette restriction autorise pourtant une interprétation moins élémentaire qu’il n’y paraît...
Chapter Thirteen: Comparing Social Organizations of Magdalenian Hunter-Gatherers: A Swiss Example
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Who were the Magdalenians who repeatedly came and lived at the sites of Champr�veyres and Monruz? How many were they, how were they organized, how many times did they settle on the shore of Neuch�tel Lake? It is hard to answer these questions, but a few clues suggest partial answers. The sites of Champr�veyres and Monruz were discovered by chance on the A5 freeway route. Rescue excavations took place between 1984 and 1986 for Champr�veyres and between 1989 and 1992...
Part III: From Today to Yesterday: Ethnographic Comparisons
Chapter Fourteen: Introduction to the Ethnographic Section: Focusing on Interpreting the Magdalenian Sites of the Paris Basin
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This short introduction only intends to locate the four chapters in this section within the context of this volume. All four have been selected to help interpret the Magdalenian sites of the Paris Basin. Although empirical analysis and knapping experimentations provide extensive proof of the presence of children and adolescents in these sites, we do not have any empirical proof of the presence of women at Verberie based on the archaeological data...
Chapter Fifteen: The Probable Sexual Division of Labor in Magdalenian Hide: Working Ethnological Evidence
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One of the most interesting discussions at the Goutelas Conference concerned the sexual division of labor in hide working. The issue can be reduced to the question of whether one can infer that women did the hide working during the Paris Basin Magdalenian or that it is impossible to make any such inference. That hide working took place on a site is signaled by the presence of used endscrapers recovered in situ, as microwear analysis has determined from numerous sites in many places and time periods...
Chapter Sixteen: The Roles of Perishable Technologies in Upper Paleolithic Lives
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While it is clear that Upper Paleolithic lives were lived by a diverse set of actors doing a great variety of things, our past research has privileged just one segment of people— namely, prime age males. It has also focused on a finite set of activities performed by this minority—specifically killing and processing animals, preferably large in size. This focus has impacted not only what archaeological materials were studied but also the methods used to recover them...
Chapter Seventeen: Slaughter and Carcass Processing of Reindeer in Siberia: Patterns and Distribution of Tasks—Comparisons Between Prehistoric and Ethnoarchaeological Cases
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Verberie and Pincevent are reindeer kill sites, for hunts during the autumn migrations. Installed along the river banks, Magdalenian nomads went there 12,000 years ago to encounter wild herds migrating toward warmer regions for the winter. Joined by this common thread, they present nonetheless variations in the representation of different categories of bones: the presence of ribs and numerous vertebrae at Verberie, which are almost absent at Pincevent....
Chapter Eighteen: M�thode de Reconstitution des Proc�d�s de Traitement des Peaux en Pr�histoire: Premi�res Applications Arch�ologiques
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En 1941, dans la première édition de L’Homme et la Matière , A. Leroi-Gourhan (1971) a démontré qu’un outil ne pouvait être appréhendé exclusivement à travers sa partie active. La majorité des outils n’acquièrent toute leur effi cacité que par leur insertion dans un manche. En 1957, en posant les fondements de la tracéologie, S. A. Semenov (Semenov 1964), à la suite de nombreuses expérimentations, confortait cette idée. En 1987, la conférence organisée par D. Stordeur (Stordeur 1987)...
Conclusion: Domesticity Re-expressed
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This volume has incorporated ideas and analyses from numerous sources, at a variety of scales, which are both broadly viewed and narrowly focused. We have called upon researchers of demography and social organization on a global scale (Zubrow), ethnoarchaeologists of modern hunter-gatherers (Beyries and Rots, David, Karlin and D’iachenko, Keeley), those interested in Paleolithic hunters and gatherers (Soffer and Adovasio)...
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Page Count: 345
Illustrations: 24 tables, 120 figures
Publication Year: 2010
Series Title: The Institute for European and Mediterranean Archaeology Distinguished Monograph Series