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Galveston

Ellis Island of the West

Bernard Marinbach

Publication Year: 1983

While the massive flow of immigrants to the Northeast was taking place, a number of Jews were finding their way to America through the port of Galveston, Texas. The descendants of these immigrants, now scattered throughout the United States, are hardly aware that their ancestors participated in a unique attempt to organize and channel Jewish immigration. From their recruitment in Eastern Europe to their settlement in the American West, these immigrants were supervised by a network of agents and representatives. The project, known as the “Galveston Movement,” brought over ten thousand Jews to the United States between the years 1907 and 1914.

Published by: State University of New York Press

Front matter

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Contents

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pp. vii-

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

Directory of Organizations

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pp. xi-

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xx

Most American Jews are descended from, or were themselves, immigrants who arrived at the Port of New York during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. While Jews are now found in all areas of the country, many still retain family remembrances of life on the Lower ...

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CHAPTER 1. Origins

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pp. 1-20

The first large-scale pogroms broke out ostensibly as a reaction to the assassination of Czar Alexander II on March 13, 1881. They began at Easter and continued into the summer. In a hundred localities throughout the southern provinces of Russia, the scene was always ...

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CHAPTER 2. 1907: Activity and Controversy

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pp. 21-43

The groups of Jewish immigrants arriving in Galveston during the summer of 1907 established a certain routine which, allowing for modification to meet changing conditions, remained throughout the history of the Galveston Movement. At its peak, the ITO's Jewish Emigration ...

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CHAPTER 3. 1908-1909: The Economic Depression

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pp. 44-55

In January 1908, Waldman sent his assistant, Henry P. Goldstein, on a tour of the West, in which he visited the Jewish communities of thirty-two cities. Fourteen of these communities had not previously been connected with the Galveston Movement, and the other eighteen ...

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CHAPTER 4. 1910: Deportations!

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pp. 56-91

The seemingly endless stream of immigration which was coming in from Southern and Eastern Europe triggered a growing nativist sentiment among many Americans whose ancestors had come from Britain and Western Europe. These "old stock" Americans bitterly complained ...

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CHAPTER 5. The Battle of the Bureaus

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pp. 92-115

The activity surrounding the deportation action created a warlike atmosphere in the V.S. Immigration and Naturalization Bureau as well as in the Jewish Immigrants' Information Bureau. The deportation of July 27, 1910, had largely been instigated by the Inspector ...

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CHAPTER 6. 1911: A Weakened Movement Resumes Operations

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pp. 116-130

The deportations of 1910 presented the Galveston Movement with the worst crisis of its existence, a setback from which it never fully recovered. While the legal battles were being fought, shipments of immigrants were severely curtailed. In January 1911, upon the favorable ...

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CHAPTER 7. 1912: Difficulties in Recruitment

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pp. 131-149

A shocking incident at the end of 1911 resulted in a readjustment of managerial responsibilities at the beginning of 1912. The incident had occurred October 15, 1911, when a freshly-arrived seventeen-year-old female immigrant, who was staying at the JIIB's immigrant quarters, was

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CHAPTER 8. 1913: The Rothschilds Withdraw, and a Hernia "Epidemic" Breaks Out

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pp. 150-165

From its inception in 1907, the ITO's Emigration Regulation Department, which was in charge of Galveston Movement operations, was supported by a special fund which had been established by its treasurer, Mr. Leopold de Rothschild of London, and his brother ...

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CHAPTER 9. 1914: The End of a Movement

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pp. 188-180

Ever since the beginning of 1913, Henry Berman, manager of the Jewish Immigrants' Information Bureau, had expressed the desire to leave Galveston. l He had agreed to remain, however, until a suitable replacement could be found. It was only toward the end ...

Retrospective

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pp. 181-195

Notes

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pp. 196-225

Bibliography

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pp. 226-231

Credits for Illustrations

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pp. 232-234

Index

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pp. 235-240


E-ISBN-13: 9781438411903
E-ISBN-10: 1438411901
Print-ISBN-13: 9780873957007
Print-ISBN-10: 0873957008

Page Count: 288
Publication Year: 1983