The Complete Prose of T. S. Eliot: The Critical Edition
Apprentice Years, 1905–1918
Publication Year: 2014
Volume 1 of The Complete Prose of T. S. Eliot, Apprentice Years, 1905-1918 includes all surviving prose from Eliot’s years as a student and from his first three years as a literary journalist. Spanning the most formative period in his life, the collection begins with a story composed when he was a sixteen-year-old student at the Smith Academy in St. Louis and ends with a review published when he was thirty and an established man of letters in London. The volume contains twenty-six previously unpublished essays in philosophy and nearly one hundred pieces published in periodicals but never collected. Scrupulously edited and annotated by Jewel Spears Brooker and Ronald Schuchard, this volume is the first scholarly edition of Eliot’s early prose.
Apprentice Years, 1905-1918 is divided into three parts. The first features stories and reviews written between 1905 and 1910 while Eliot was a day student at Smith Academy and an undergraduate at Harvard. The second consists of essays in philosophy and ethics written between 1912 and 1915 when he was a graduate student at Harvard and Oxford. The culmination of this work was his doctoral dissertation on F. H. Bradley, here published for the first time in a critical edition. Articles and reviews written between 1915 and 1918 constitute the third group, beginning with pieces related to Eliot’s credentials in philosophy and the social sciences and concluding with essays and reviews in little magazines and journals Eliot published while establishing himself in literary circles. Apprentice Years contains a detailed historical introduction that traces Eliot’s intellectual development from broad interests in language and literature to intensive study of F. H. Bradley and Aristotle to an informed synthesis of literature and philosophy in literary criticism.
Jewel Spears Brooker, Professor Emerita of Literature at Eckerd College, is the author or editor of eight books, including Approaches to Teaching Eliot's Poetry and Plays (1988), Reading 'The Waste Land': Modernism and the Limits of Interpretation (1990, coauthored with Joseph Bentley), The Placing of T. S. Eliot (1991), Mastery and Escape: T. S. Eliot and the Dialectic of Modernism (1994), Conversations with Denise Levertov (1998), T. S. Eliot and Our Turning World (2000), and T. S. Eliot: The Contemporary Reviews (2004). She has received fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Knight Foundation, and Pew Charitable Trust. She has served as president of the T. S. Eliot Society and the South Atlantic Modern Language Association and as a member of the National Humanities Council of the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Ronald Schuchard, the Goodrich C. White Professor of English, Emeritus, at Emory University, is the author of award-winning Eliot’s Dark Angel (1999) and The Last Minstrels: Yeats and the Revival of the Bardic Arts (2008). The editor of Eliot’s Clark and Turnbull lectures, The Varieties of Metaphysical Poetry (1993), he is co-editor with John Kelly of The Collected Letters of W. B. Yeats, Volume 3 (1994), Volume 4 (2005), winner of the MLA’s Cohen Award for a Distinguished Edition of Letters, and Volume 5 (forthcoming). A former Guggenheim fellow and founder-director of the T. S. Eliot International Summer School (2009-2013), he is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press and Faber & Faber Ltd
Title Page, Copyright
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General Editorial Introduction
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I. The Scope and State of T. S. Eliot’s Prose, 1965-2014
As one of the most prolific prose masters of his age, T. S. Eliot published several volumes of essays that have had an immeasurable impact on literature, culture, and the humanities worldwide. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, however, more than seven hundred pieces of Eliot’s...
Apprentice Years, 1905-1918 Introduction
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“The token that a philosophy is true,” T. S. Eliot argued in a 1914 student essay, “is the fact that it brings us to the exact point from which we started.” Three decades later, in the final lines of his last major poem, Four Quartets, he echoes the idea: “And the end of all our exploring / Will be to arrive where we started / And know the place for the first time.” This volume, the...
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Our greatest debt is to the late Valerie Eliot, for her tireless devotion over many years to collecting, preserving, and ordering her husband’s multiform writings, and for her confidence and trust in commissioning The Complete Prose of T. S. Eliot. We are also indebted to her personal assistant, Debbie Whitfield, who has graciously facilitated our access to editorial materials...
List of Abbreviations
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List of Illustrations
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Part I: Juvenilia and Undergraduate Writing
The Birds of Prey
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A vulture who was sunning himself on the top of a tree suddenly flapped his wings and, after a few preliminary circles, started off to the southward. A hungry bird of prey does not fly about for exercise, and this one seemed to have a very definite destination. There were others flying in the same direction. As they progressed there came more and more, until they made...
A Tale of a Whale
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It was in ’71, I remember, that I was on the whaling ship Parallel Opipedon, in the South Pacific. One day after a prolonged spell of bad luck, we happened to be becalmed off Tanzatatapoo Island. We lay motionless for several days and although the mizzen top-gallant shrouds had been repeatedly belayed to the fore staysail, and the flying-jib-boom cleared, and lashed to...
The Man Who Was King
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Cap’n Jimmy Magruder, retired A. B. mariner, and at present engaged in lobster-trawling and skippering summer visitors, is famous in his own country for his genius at telling stories of his adventures at sea. There is one in particular of his brief experience as a king, of which he is particularly fond. I have heard him tell it many times, and always with different and more...
The Defects of Kipling
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As the novelty of certain innovations dies away, as the school of literature of which Mr. Kipling is the most illustrious representative, the exotic school, passes with all its blemishes exaggerated more and more into the hands of less brilliant practitioners, so Kipling’s fame is fading, and his unique charm is diminished. He himself has made little effort to increase...
Some of Mr. Kipling’s Defects
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As the novelty of certain innovations dies away, as the school of literature of which Mr. Kipling is the most illustrious representative, the exotic school, passes with its blemishes exaggerated, more and more into the hands of less able practitioners, so Kipling’s fame is fading, and his unique charm is diminished. Kipling himself has made little effort to increase his reputation...
A review of The Wine of the Puritans: A Study of Present-Day America, by Van Wyck Brooks
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We are glad of the opportunity to review a book by a former Advocate editor–Mr. Van Wyck Brooks, of the board of 1908. This is a book which probably will chiefly interest one class of Americans (a class, however, of some importance): the Americans retained to their native country by business relations or socialities or by a sense of duty–the last reason implying a real sacrifice–while...
The Point of View
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This week we are printing two articles presenting the opposite sides of an ancient controversy–that between the sport and the grind. The discussion, though never final, is always interesting, when it is the attempt of each to justify himself without injustice to the opponent. No one need hope to settle the dispute. But if all prejudice and misunderstanding are cleared away, it is...
Gentlemen and Seamen
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Those of us who can claim any New England ancestors may congratulate ourselves that we are their descendants, and at the same time rejoice that we are not their contemporaries. Their sombre faces, with an inflexible contraction of the lips, as they have been stiffened and conventionalized in oils by forgotten artists, suggest natures difficult and unyielding, as the consequence...
A review of Egoists, A Book of Supermen, by James Huneker
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Now that Arthur Symons is no longer active in English letters, Mr. James Huneker alone represents modernity in criticism. Few critics are possessed of so much erudition, yet there are few so determined to consider subjects only of the most modern interest. In fact, he is far too alert to be an American; in his style and in his temper he is French. Then, too, he is a musician; plays...
Part II: Graduate Essays and Ph.D. Thesis
Report on the Kantian Categories
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There are perhaps three chief types in the history of the category, three distinct uses of the...
Report on the Relation of Kant’s Criticism to Agnosticism
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In distinction from any dogmatic point of view, there are three others possible. ...
Report on the Ethics of Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason
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The validity of the ethics of practical reason rests on: (1) the possibility of
an absolute distinction between practical and speculative reason, and
(2) the possibility of an escape from the paradoxes of practical morality into
an absolute realm of pure law.
The first of these two conditions is simply the question whether there is any other than a provisional distinction between the objects of practical...
[Degrees of Reality]
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[Degrees of Reality] was written at Harvard University for either Charles Montague Bakewell’s “Seminary in Metaphysics: The Nature of Reality” (Philosophy 20c) or Hugo Münsterberg’s “Seminary in Psychology: Mind and Body” (Philosophy 20b), both of which Eliot took in the spring of 1913. The prominence of Bradley’s metaphysics suggests that the essay may have been written for “The Nature of Reality,” whereas...
[Inconsistencies in Bergson’s Idealism]
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[Inconsistencies in Bergson’s Idealism] is evidently the reading text of an address to
the Harvard Philosophical Club presented during the academic year (1913-14) in
which Eliot served as its president. It was probably given on 19 Dec 1913, the day
reserved during autumn term for papers by members.
The text of this paper is the Données immédiates, the first, third, [and] fourth...
[The Relationship between Politics and Metaphysics]
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[The Relationship between Politics and Metaphysics] is evidently the reading text of
a second address to the Harvard Philosophical Club, given in spring 1914 when Eliot
served as club president.
I have no learning in political economy, and with political theory as such the present paper has nothing to do. I am not concerned to advocate any particular theory of government. But the critic of human affairs may justly...
The Interpretation of Primitive Ritual
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“The Interpretation of Primitive Ritual” was written for Josiah Royce’s 1913-14 “Philosophy 20c: Seminary in Logic.” Each student was expected to present one long paper and several “notes” (as Royce referred to the shorter papers) related to the overall topic for the year, “A Comparative Study of Various Types of Scientific Method.” Eliot read the following “long paper” on 9 Dec...
Communication and Inspection
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On 16 Dec 1913, Eliot gave the first of four short presentations for Professor Royce’s seminar. He titled it “Communication and Inspection” and, according to Costello, resumed the argument about interpretation outlined the previous week in his long paper. Costello summarizes the basic question as: “what is the status of a supposed fact which includes as part of itself a belief or a meaning? How can we be sure we are correctly...
Description and Explanation
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On 24 Feb 1914, Eliot presented the second of four short papers for Professor Royce’s seminar. Costello records the title as “Description and Explanation,” briefly summarizes the argument, and ...
Cause as ideal construction
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Eliot was absent for the meeting of Royce’s seminar on 17 Mar 1914. His paper, “Cause as ideal construction,” was read to the group by a fellow student, Narendra Nath Sen Gupta. The ensuing discussion by Royce and other participants is briefly summarized in Costello’s ...
Suggestions toward a Theory of Objects
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On 5 May 1914, Eliot read “Suggestions toward a Theory of Objects,” his fourth
and final paper for Royce’s seminar. A record of the day’s proceedings, including a
summary of Eliot’s presentation, is included in Costello’s notebook (JRS 173-77).
I consider the classification of the types of object entirely an empirical affair. The object as such is quite independent of the subject–that is, the object as...
[The Ethics of Satisfaction in Tucker’s The Light of Nature Pursued]
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[The Ethics of Satisfaction in Tucker’s The Light of Nature Pursued] was written at
Harvard in spring 1914 for “Philosophy 20d: Seminary in Ethics” taught by Professor
Ralph Barton Perry. The content for the course is described as “the history of ethics.”
“The life of a man devoted to study and retirement, to the investigation of metaphysical truth, and the practice of religious duties, can indeed hardly...
[Self-realisation and Pleasure in the Ethics of Green and Sidgwick]
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[Self-realisation and Pleasure in the Ethics of Green and Sidgwick] was written at
Harvard in spring 1914 for “Philosophy 20d: Seminary in Ethics” taught by Professor
Ralph Barton Perry.
The object of this paper is to compare the self-realisation ethics of Green with the utilitarian ethics of Sidgwick; to consider the criticisms which each has passed upon the other, and to estimate the score on both...
[Objects: Content, Objectivity, and Existence]
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Eliot was a student at Merton College, Oxford University, for three terms in 1914-15. For the 1914 Michaelmas term (5 Oct-5 Dec), he attended three sets of lectures: (1) John A. Smith, Logic; (2) R. G. Collingwood, Aristotle’s De anima; and (3) Harold H. Joachim, Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. He also attended a weekly discussion class with Smith and a small reading class with Joachim, both on Aristotle. In...
[Objects: Real, Unreal, Ideal, and Imaginary]
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[Objects: Real, Unreal, Ideal, and Imaginary] is the second of six surviving essays that
Eliot wrote for his 1914 Michaelmas tutorial with Professor Joachim.
I have endeavoured to distinguish within the object three aspects: content, objectivity, and existence. These are not, however, strictly parallel aspects; as in some contexts, one and two fall together, and in others two and three. I will discuss...
[Finite Centres and Points of View]
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[Finite Centres and Points of View] is the third of six surviving essays that Eliot wrote
in the 1914 Michaelmas term for his tutorial with Joachim.
It was contended in the preceding paper that the object is what it turns out to be; that it is only in a world of social intercourse that objects can come into being and maintain their existence; and that the real meaning of the object is dependent...
[The Privacy of Points of View]
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[The Privacy of Points of View] is the fourth of six surviving essays that Eliot
wrote in the 1914 Michaelmas term for his tutorial with Joachim.
I should like first to make another attempt to explain the “privacy” of “points of view” and the relation of object (point of view, system of terms and relations) to subject. All objects, I asserted before, are essentially...
[Definition and Judgment in Bradley and his Critics]
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[Definition and Judgment in Bradley and his Critics] is the fifth of six surviving
essays that Eliot wrote in the 1914 Michaelmas term for his tutorial with Joachim.
The difficulties of definition are occasioned by the fact that every definition is relative to a point of view, and it is only when and where differences of point of view are negligible that we can be said to have an adequate...
The validity of artificial distinctions
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“The validity of artificial distinctions” is the last of six surviving essays that Eliot wrote
in the 1914 Michaelmas term for his tutorial with Joachim.
I should like to offer a few remarks upon the validity of the artificial distinctions used in philosophy. I shall defend these distinctions, for I hold that artificial distinctions are necessary; believing that in metaphysics all distinctions are in...
[Εiδος in the Early Socratic and Late Platonic Dialogues]
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In Jan 1915, Eliot resumed his philosophical studies at Oxford. According to his report to Dean Briggs of Harvard, in this “second term” (Hilary term, mid-Jan to mid-Mar), “I attended two courses of lectures, one by Mr. H. H. Joachim, my tutor, and one by Professor J. A. Smith” (L1 118). As in the Michaelmas term, Joachim’s lectures were on the Nicomachean Ethics and Smith’s lectures, “The Concept of Value,” were on...
The Relativity of the Moral Judgment
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At the end of the Hilary term in 1915, Eliot read “The Relativity of the Moral
Judgment” at a meeting of the Moral Sciences Club held on 12 Mar in Russell’s rooms
The attempt to defend a naturalistic or biological attitude in ethics exposes one, I am well aware, to an attack from two quarters: from those who adopt a thoroughgoing rationalism, and from those who seek for truth in the...
[Thought and Reality in Aristotle’s Metaphysics]
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Eliot continued his Oxford studies in the Trinity term (22 May to 10 July) 1915. In July, he submitted a brief report to Dean Briggs: “In the last term, I continued attendance at lectures by Mr. Joachim and Professor Smith, completed the reading of the text [Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics] with Mr. Joachim, and brought Mr. Joachim weekly papers on the philosophy of Aristotle” (L1 118). The lecture courses by Joachim and...
[Matter and Form in Aristotle’s Metaphysics]
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[Matter and Form in Aristotle’s Metaphysics] is the second surviving essay of the six
to eight on Aristotle that Eliot wrote for Joachim during the Trinity term 1915.
It is frequently supposed that Aristotle’s use of ὕλη involves him in contradiction. On the one hand, he speaks of τὸ ὑποκείμενον as οὐσία or of ὕλη as οὐσία (1042a32: ὅτι δ᾿ ἐστὶν οὐσία καὶ ἡ ὕλη, δῆλον) [and] elsewhere...
[Causality in Aristotle’s Metaphysics]
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[Causality in Aristotle’s Metaphysics] is the third surviving essay of the six to eight on
Aristotle that Eliot wrote for Joachim during the 1915 Trinity term.
I suggested in the preceding paper that the distinction between matter and form held good only so far as we were compelled to consider any substance under a temporal aspect. Where we can think of the matter under another...
[Change in Aristotle’s De generatione et corruptione]
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Of the six to eight essays on Aristotle that Eliot wrote for Joachim during the 1915
Trinity term, [Change in Aristotle’s De generatione et corruptione] is the last of four
to have survived.
γένεσις is one of the two species of μεταβολή, of which the other species is κίνησις. The specific difference between γένεσις and the three kinds of κίνησις together is this, that in all κίνησις there is a permanent substratum, a...
Knowledge and Experience in the Philosophy of F. H. Bradley
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From October 1911 until June 1914 I was a student in the Harvard Graduate School as a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This degree was to be attained in three stages: at the end of the second year by Preliminary Examinations in which one was tested in all the branches of philosophy which one had studied, and in the ability to translate French and German...
Part III: Early Journalism: Reviews and Essays
What India Is Thinking About To-day. An unsigned omnibus review of ten books on India
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Why is it that so many cultivated British officials in India persist in ignoring what the young and educated Indians of to-day are thinking, and occupy themselves by preference, when they write about India, with a perpetual rehash of what they imagine to be the philosophy of the Vedas? Indians complain, not unnaturally, of the assumption that there is nothing else in the...
A review of Theism and Humanism, by Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour
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This brilliant book, all the more remarkable for the circumstances under which it appears, would be a noteworthy philosophical event at anytime. Mr. Balfour begins by saying that he does not pretend to construct or outline a metaphysical system. While in substance a protest against the aesthetics, the ethics, and the epistemology of “Naturalism” (by which the author...
A review of The Philosophy of Nietzsche, by A. Wolf
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Nietzsche is one of those writers whose philosophy evaporates when detached from its literary qualities, and whose literature owes its charm not alone to the personality and wisdom of the man, but to a claim to scientific truth. Such authors have always a peculiar influence over the large semi-philosophical public, who are spared the austere effort of criticism required...
Thomas Hardy. A review of Thomas Hardy: A Study of the Wessex Novels, by H. C. Duffin
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This is an excellent book of its kind. It resembles, in form, a doctor’s thesis at an American university, and in substance a good set of Extension lectures. The youth of the writer, intimated by Dr. Herford’s prefatory testimonial, is indicated by the conscientious conventionality of the table of contents. Part I deals with the art of Hardy. Under this heading are grouped chapters...
An American Critic. An unsigned review of Aristocracy and Justice, by Paul Elmer More
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The Shelburne Essays, of which this book is the ninth volume, stand for much more than the scattered criticisms which most of them contain. Mr. More is not, strictly speaking, a political thinker, nor is he, in the strictest sense, a literary critic. His taste is too comprehensive, his learning too impartial; his praise expresses approval rather than sympathy. One does not find...
An unsigned review of The French Renascence, by Charles Sarolea
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The title of this book is misleading. There is no reason why Dr. Sarolea should not publish a volume of essays on various figures of French history and letters from Montaigne to Raymond Poincaré; but they are not sufficiently bound together by the panegyric on the French genius which forms the introduction and the close. “The French Renascence” apparently refers to contemporary...
Mr. Doughty’s Epic. An unsigned review of The Titans, by Charles M. Doughty
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This is an epic dealing with the creation of the world, the battle of the Titans against gods, their defeat and their final subjugation in the service of man. One does not find fault with Mr. Doughty for writing an epic. No literary genre, once established, is ever outworn. But mythology is dangerous literary material. It should either be a mythology in which the author more or less believes...
Mr. Leacock Serious. A review of Essays and Literary Studies, by Stephen Leacock
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Although Mr. Leacock employs many Americanisms which may sound slipshod to an English ear, he succeeds, as most writers of his continent fail, in being amusing and at the same time conveying some hard, important, and unpopular truths. The truths are universal; the humour is American, and may not appeal to English readers. It gains its effect often by a trick of...
An unsigned review of Social Adaptation: A Study in the Development of the Doctrine of Adaptation as a Theory of Social Progress, by L. M. Bristol
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Professor Bristol’s method is historical. After an introductory discussion of the pioneers of sociology, Comte and Spencer, and an examination of several different methods, the author proceeds to summarise almost every subsequent writer of any importance who has touched upon sociological problems. Dr. Bristol uses a classification of Professor T. N. Carver’s; treating...
An unsigned first review of Group Theories of Religion and the Individual, by Clement C. J. Webb
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This book has a greater importance than even the name of Mr. C. C. J. Webb upon its cover would lead us to assign it. It represents the resistance of the orthodoxy, the brains, and the scholarship of Oxford to a new heresy in religion. Mr. Webb is an Aristotelian; his religion is based upon Aquinas, and brought up to Bosanquet and Royce. The writers whom he attacks are students...
Durkheim. An unsigned first review of The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life: A Study in Religious Sociology, by Émile Durkheim
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This is exactly the sort of book which is worth translating. A scholarly book, it has already made its impression among scholars; and both interest of subject and exposition of the theories advanced recommend it to a wider public. Embodying several articles first published in M. Durkheim’s L’Année Sociologique, it yet shows modifications of the earlier views; and presents...
Bergson. A review of A Study in the Philosophy of Bergson, by G. W. Cunningham
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It is evidence of the fecundity of Bergson’s thought that, while almost all other professional philosophers are in very marked disagreement with him, very few agree among themselves as to what is fundamentally wrong. And most of Bergson’s opponents have found occasion, at some point or other, to admit that they are under obligation to him. An estimate of Bergson must...
A review of Conscience and Christ: Six Lectures on Christian Ethics, by Hastings Rashdall
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There is no one better qualified than Canon Rashdall for the task which he has set himself. What is the relation of conscience to authority? When must conscience appeal to the teaching of Jesus for justification, and how far is the teaching of Jesus justified by appeal to conscience? Dr. Rashdall is distinguished both as a Christian and as a moral philosopher. In this volume...
Second review of Group Theories of Religion and the Individual, by Clement C. J. Webb
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In 1914 Mr. Clement Webb delivered a course of lectures at Oxford on certain sociological theories of religion. In their present form they are still lectures. They contain a most interesting commentary for anyone who is reading the works of Durkheim and Lévy-Bruhl; and they constitute a very able polemic. There was needed just such an attack upon the theories of these...
First review of Religion and Science: A Philosophical Essay, by John Theodore Merz
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The learned historian of European thought has in this book three ideas. (1) Science deals only with an “external” world, which is a development of the world of common sense “with a still greater restriction of fundamental data” (107) out of an earlier and larger reality. (2) Science describes and explains, its terms consist of “spatial data and their connections” . Interpretation, i.e. the...
A review of The Ultimate Belief, by A. Clutton-Brock
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“Our whole society suffers from a lack of values” . This is Mr. Clutton-Brock’s thesis. The strength of German society is based upon a definite system of values. “The German boy is given a reason why he should be good and why he should love knowledge. He is told that he must do everything to increase the glory and power of Germany. That is bad philosophy, but it is...
A review of Philosophy & War, by Émile Boutroux Trans. Fred Rothwell
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There are a few critical reflections upon German philosophy which should have been made long ago. Without the war, they might not have attracted so large an audience, but one regrets that Professor Boutroux buried them in a volume of commonplace patriotism. In his attacks upon everything else that is German, M. Boutroux is merely the average French (or English) university...
The Development of Leibniz’s Monadism
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The study of the Monadology may be comprised in three stages. In the first we isolate the work; with no other aid than the philosophical counters which itself employs, we attempt to draw its fantastic world around us and find it real. Perhaps we supplement it by searching in other works of Leibniz for elucidations of points which are not clear; but in any case we...
Leibniz’s Monads and Bradley’s Finite Centres
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No philosopher is more fantastic than Leibniz in presentation, few have been less intelligently interpreted. At first sight, none is less satisfactory. Yet Leibniz remains to the end disquieting and dangerous. He represents no one tradition, no one civilisation; he is allied to no social or literary tendency; his thought cannot be summed up or placed. Spinoza represents a definite...
Syllabus of a Course of Six Lectures on Modern French Literature
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The Origins: What Is Romanticism?
Contemporary intellectual movements in France must be understood as in large measure a reaction against the “romanticist” attitude of the nineteenth century. During the nineteenth century several conflicting tendencies were manifested, but they may all be traced to a common source. The germs of...
Syllabus for a Tutorial Class in Modern English Literature
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Survey of the Romantic Period. Influences upon Tennyson. Temper of his time. His personality. Early verse (1830-1842). Technique. Read: Lady of Shalott, Lotos-Eaters, Mariana, Morte d’Arthur, Ulysses, Locksley Hall, The Two Voices, The Palace of Art
Tennyson’s longer poems. Tennyson’s scientific interests. Politics. Moral teaching. Religious views. Relations with his...
Charles Péguy. An unsigned review of Avec Charles Péguy, de la Lorraine à la Marne, par Victor Boudon
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Charles Péguy, the French poet and publicist, was one of the most illustrious of the dead who have fallen in this war. In an article published in these columns some months since, M. Pierre Chavannes explained how great was the hold that this sociable, yet in a manner solitary, Catholic Democrat had over the best youth of France; and we need not describe his career again...
Mr. Lee Masters. A review of Songs and Satires, by Edgar Lee Masters
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Everyone has read and admired the Spoon River Anthology: almost no one can say precisely what he thinks of it. The present volume ought to clear up some of these hesitations. Very little of it is quite in the Spoon River vein, and much of it is in quite conventional vein. Whether the ballads of Launcelot were written before or after Spoon River is really a matter of...
Giordano Bruno. An unsigned review of Giordano Bruno: His Life, Thought, and Martyrdom, by William Boulting
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Giordano Bruno is the Benvenuto Cellini of philosophy. The comparison may seem far-fetched, in view of the sanctity with which martyrdom has invested Bruno’s name, but a study of Mr. Boulting’s biography gives it some justification. Bruno’s life is more interesting than his work is important. A violent, somewhat undisciplined temperament, a life of varied wandering, a...
Classics in English. A review of The Poets’ Translation Series I-VI
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The translators of this series have an opportunity which most of them have
neglected. H. D. is the exception.
Gilbert Murray has struck at Greek scholarship and done no good to English verse. Euripides for the working-man, at a shilling the play, in the style of fifty years ago–an ideal of socialism and popular education–Greek without...
Autour d’une traduction d’Euripide. An unpublished review of a translation by H. D. of Euripides’ Choruses from Iphigeneia in Aulis
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Dans une critique de la belle traduction qu’a faite H. D. de quelques vers d’Euripide, j’ai signalé ce qui me semble être deux buts différents, deux catégories mêmes, que peut suivre la traduction. Cette différence capitale répond à une distinction plus profonde, distinction entre deux attitudes de l’esprit envers la littérature, et surtout la poésie, dite...
An unsigned review of With Americans of Past and Present Days, by J. J. Jusserand
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For thirteen years M. Jusserand has been French Ambassador in Washington. His Literary History of the English People is well known in England, and the present volume of scattered essays also deserves recognition here. Three papers deal with the rôle of the French contingent in the War of Independence; the rest are addresses delivered in America on Lincoln, on Franklin, on...
An unsigned review of The Reef of Stars: A Romance of the Tropics, by H. de Vere Stacpoole
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Whose was the huge misshapen hand, apparently encased in a woollen glove, which rose suddenly out of the hatchway? No matter how seasoned the reader may be in treasure-hunting, he will experience several new shudders from Mr. H. de Vere Stacpoole’s new novel. There are all of the usual stage properties, and some original ones too. The story opens on the beach at...
First review of Elements of Folk Psychology: Outlines of a Psychological History of the Development of Mankind, by Wilhelm Wundt. Trans. Edward Leroy Schaub
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This book of Wundt’s will probably remain as a classic of its kind. One thinks of Wundt as one of a half-dozen or so of the founders of modern psychology; and this is as much the case in Völkerpsychologie as in individual psychology. But a book which can be thought of dispassionately as a classic almost upon its appearance–the German edition is of 1912–is...
Autobiographical Note. Harvard College Class of 1910, Third Report
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Thomas Stearns Eliot
During 1910-1911 I was studying in Paris. In the autumn of 1911 I returned to Harvard, and spent the next three years in the Graduate School in the department of philosophy. During 1913-1914 I was an assistant in the department. In 1914 I secured an appointment as Sheldon travelling fellow. During the following summer I was in Germany, and the year of 1914-1915 I spent...
Reflections on Vers Libre
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A Lady, renowned in her small circle for the accuracy of her stop-press information of literature, complains to me of a growing pococurantism. “Since the Russians came in I can read nothing else. I have finished Dostoevski, and I do not know what to do.” I suggested that the great Russian was an admirer of Dickens, and that she also might that find that author readable. “But...
Diderot. An unsigned review of Diderot’s Early Philosophical Works. Trans. and ed. Margaret Jourdain
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In all the active and restless eighteenth century, perhaps the most restless and active intelligence was that of Diderot. Yet his immortality is hardly more than the echo of a name. To the curious in literature much lesser names are almost as well known: Évremonde, Condillac, Chamfort, Lespinasse. It is not the mere bulk of the man’s work which is forbidding. Voltaire’s...
An unsigned review of Union Portraits, by Gamaliel Bradford
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In this volume there are nine portraits of Union leaders in the American Civil War–Sherman, McClellan, Hooker, Meade, Thomas, the generals; Stanton, Seward, Sumner, the Cabinet Ministers; and Bowles, the journalist. Mr. Bradford has chosen his material with admirable discretion; the portraits are short, and bring out the important traits most skillfully. In...
Eeldrop and Appleplex
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Eeldrop and Appleplex rented two small rooms in a disreputable part of
town. Here they sometimes came at nightfall, here they sometimes slept,
and after they had slept, they cooked oatmeal and departed in the morning
for destinations unknown to each other. They sometimes slept, more often
they talked, or looked out of the window.
They had chosen the rooms and...
President Wilson. An unsigned review of President Wilson, His Problems and His Policy: An English View, by H. Wilson Harris
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Mr. Harris’s book is a book of the moment, and it has the kind of merits which a book of the moment ought to have. Written for the British reader, it will provide him in the space of an hour or two with the sediment of information which would be likely to remain in the mind of an average American after a dozen years of newspaper scanning. Very wisely, Mr. Harris has not...
The Borderline of Prose
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In the days when prosperous middle-class chimney-pieces were decorated with overmantels and flanked by tall jars of pampas grass; when knowing amateurs began to talk of Outamaro and Toyakuni; in the days when Mrs. Pennell’s friends found source of laughter in feeding peacocks with spongecake soaked in absinthe; when Mr. George Moore was wearing a sugarloaf...
James Joyce and His Critics: Some Classified Comments
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CAUTION: It is very difficult to know quite what to say about this new
book by Mr. Joyce–Literary World [London].
DRAINS: Mr. Joyce is a clever novelist, but we feel he would be really at his best in a treatise on drains–Everyman [London].
CLEAN-MINDEDNESS: This pseudo-autobiography of Stephen Dedalus, a weakling and a dreamer, makes fascinating reading . . . No clean-minded...
To the Editor of The Nation
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Sir–I enclose herewith an extract from a letter lately received from a young
officer which I hope may interest some of your readers. I may add that the
officer in question entered the Army directly from a public school, and
began his service in the trenches before he was nineteen. –Yours, etc.,
T. S. Eliot
18, Crawford Mansions, Crawford...
The Letters of J. B. Yeats. A review of Passages from the Letters of John Butler Yeats. Selected by Ezra Pound
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If the usual person asks the usual question about the decay of letter-writing, he is met with the usual vague and unsatisfactory answer referring him to telephones, rapid transit, and the rush of modern life. The lack of leisure is deplored; lack of leisure being an excuse for laziness. What lack of leisure really means in modern life is that an able writer like D. H. Lawrence lacks...
A review of Mens Creatrix: An Essay, by William Temple
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Mr. Temple wishes to demonstrate that philosophy, art, morality, education
and politics all aim at a completion which they never of themselves
reach, and that they find this completion in Christianity. He supplies accordingly
a metaphysics, an aesthetics, a social and individual ethics, and a
This is a vast undertaking. As might be expected, Mr. Temple has not...
A review of Religion and Philosophy, by R. G. Collingwood
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Mr. Collingwood has conceived a task very similar to that of Mr. Temple (Mens Creatrix)–the necessary completion of philosophy in religion. He holds, however, that philosophy and religion are in reality the same thing; for even a materialistic philosophy, firmly held, may be a man’s religion. He proposes then “to treat the Christian creed not as dogma but as a critical...
A review of Reflections on Violence, by Georges Sorel Trans. with an intro. and bibliography, by T. E. Hulme
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Sorel’s book is exceedingly difficult to discuss in a short review. Its substance is a very acute and disillusioned commentary upon nineteenth-century socialism, and upon the politics of the French democracy for the last twenty-five years. It contains also two elements which must not be confused, Sorel’s own political propaganda (if he would allow it to be so called) and his...
A review of The Study of Religions, by Stanley A. Cook
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Mr. Cook is very long-winded, but in spite of dryness and abstractness of style he has written a valuable book. Much thought has evidently gone into it, and its defects are due to a difficult manner of exposition, not to poverty of the ideas. This is not an “Introduction” of the type of Jevons’s book; it gives no data for the beginner, nor, as one is apt to expect from the...
The Noh and the Image. A review of ‘Noh’ or Accomplishment: A Study of the Classical Stage of Japan, by Ernest Fenollosa and Ezra Pound
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I hope that in a few years we shall have another edition of these plays, an edition of Fenollosa’s notes separately, and an edition of the plays separately. Then the importance of the plays as literature, and in their present translation as English literature, will be more evident. This edition is necessarily, and in the best sense, a textbook; it has, therefore, excited reviewers to dwell...
M. Bourget’s Last Novel. An unsigned review of Lazarine, by Paul Bourget
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M. Bourget’s novel is methodically laid out, into three parts: Les Personnages, La Tragedie, and Le Dénouement. One looks for a close-woven, inevitable tragic drama, and the construction is indeed very careful; yet the Tragedie does not follow necessarily from the Personnages, nor the Dénouement from the Tragedie. The persons are Robert Graffeteau, a mercantile...
Reflections on Contemporary Poetry, I. A review, in part, of Strange Meetings, by Harold Monro
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One of the ways by which contemporary verse has tried to escape the rhetorical, the abstract, the moralizing, to recover (for that is its purpose) the accents of direct speech, is to concentrate its attention upon trivial or accidental or commonplace objects. This tendency is common to a very great variety of poets; what is less noticed is the divergence of form which it...
A Forgotten Utopia. An unsigned review of Christianopolis: An Ideal State of the Seventeenth Century. Trans. from the Latin of Johann Valentin Andreae by Felix Emil Held
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Towards the end of the sixteenth century there was born in Germany one Johann Valentin Andreae. At the age of fifteen he was admitted to the University of Tübingen where, says his editor, he “perfected himself” in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Spanish, Italian, and English . He also read widely in contemporary history and literature; not the least of his...
William James on Immortality. An unsigned review of Human Immortality: Two Supposed Objections to the Doctrine, by William James
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These two editions are convenient reprints of the Ingersoll Lecture of 1898. A considerable number of philosophers, scientists, and men of letters have taken their turn as Ingersoll Lecturer; few have succeeded in contributing anything very important to an obscure problem; yet the series has the interest, in retrospect, of a comparative study of points of view. William James’s...
An unsigned review of A Defence of Idealism: Some Questions and Conclusions, by May Sinclair
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Miss Sinclair’s book has all the charm which the fresh and interested mind of an outsider, turned upon the achievements of a technical art or science, can give. She approaches philosophy somewhat as Samuel Butler approached biology; perhaps partly for this reason, her essay on Butler is the most successful in the book. She considers in turn the constructions of...
A Course of Twenty-Five Lectures on Victorian Literature
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1. Introductory–The Social Framework.
The Makers of Nineteenth-Century Ideas
2. History and Criticism–Thomas Carlyle.
3. A Contrast in Ideas–John Stuart Mill and Matthew Arnold.
4. The Influence of Science–Darwinism in T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer.
5. Art and Economics–John Ruskin and William...
Syllabus for a Tutorial Class in Modern English Literature, Second Year’s Work
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Modern English Literature
Characteristics of New England literature of the time. Emerson’s relation to English men of letters. The society in which he lived. Religious and philosophical environment: Unitarianism and Transcendentalism.
Emerson’s style as an essayist. His aloofness; contrast with Carlyle, Arnold, and Ruskin. Quality of his...
Reflections on Contemporary Poetry [II]. A review of The Closed Door (Portes fermées), by Jean de Bosschère. Trans. F. S. Flint; and John Davidson: A Study of the Relation of his Ideas to his Poetry, by Hayim Fineman
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There is a certain odd resemblance, quite superficial, between some of the poems of Mr. Harold Monro and the Closed Door of M. Jean de Bosschère. In Mr. Monro’s poems we find a constant slight distortion, a sudden emphasis upon the apparently trivial, which appears at first to be something new and foreign. Mr. Monro arrives at a degree of consistency in a charming flirtation...
A review of A Manual of Modern Scholastic Philosophy, Vol. I, by Cardinal Mercier and other professors of the Higher Institute of Philosophy. Trans. T. L. Parker and S. A. Parker
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This work, which will be complete in two volumes, is in large part an abridgment of the well-known Louvain philosophical series, six volumes of which had appeared before the beginning of the war. The present work includes, besides a prefatory introduction to philosophy, Cosmology (by D. Nys), Psychology, Criteriology (Epistemology), and Ontology by Cardinal...
A review of “The Meaning of ‘the Universe’,” by Charles E. Hooper
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C. E. Hooper publishes “The Meaning of ‘the Universe’” (Mind, April 1917), the first installment of an article of massive appearance. The definition is as follows: the Universe means the totality of real thought-objects (or object-matters) considered under four related aspects: (1) space, (2) time, (3) the variety in unity of natural characters, i.e., real thought-objects as particulars...
A review of “Lotze, Bradley, and Bosanquet,” by Agnes Cuming
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Agnes Cuming (“Lotze, Bradley, and Bosanquet,” Mind, April 1917) declares Lotze’s logic to be a partial revolt against the intellectualism of Hegel. Our intelligent experience, according to Lotze, is only a small part of the real world and thought is only a small part of our intelligent experience. Thought is a tool, a substitute for adequate perceptive intuition. Bradley’s...
A review of “Schopenhauer and Individuality,” by Bertram M. Laing
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In the same number, B. M. Laing (“Schopenhauer and Individuality”) considers that Schopenhauer fails to appreciate the metaphysical claims of individuality. He dethrones reason, making it a mere temporary organ of the will. He interprets Kant in such a way as to make Kant assert that the mind creates the world of things, instead of merely conditioning it. This perversion...
Reflections on Contemporary Poetry [III]. A review of The New Poetry: An Anthology, ed. Harriet Monroe and Alice Corbin Henderson
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Each of us, even the most gifted, can find room in his brain for hardly more than two or three new ideas, or ideas so perfectly assimilated as to be original; for an idea is a speciality, and no one has time for more than a few. With these, or with one, say, hexagonal or octagonal idea, each sets to work and industriously and obliviously begins building cells; not rebelling against the...
Pseudonymous letters for The Egoist
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We invite critical comment from our readers, and we regret that lack of space prevents us from printing more than excerpts from the following letters:
Your writer on “Elizabethan Classicists” struck me, if I may say so without offence, as straining with youthful zeal after original opinions. His attempted rehabilitation of Ovid merely shows that the true taste for...
Turgenev. A review of Turgenev, by Edward Garnett
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The cosmopolitan is not a popular type. The Conversations with Eckermann, though Sainte-Beuve hardly judges Goethe by anything else, are not much read; and it is in these, rather than in his better-read works, that Goethe most nearly approaches an ideal that he has been credited with realizing. Turgenev, much more cosmopolitan than Goethe, is the least exploited of...
Unsigned reviews of poetry by Alan Seeger, Guy Rawlence, Joseph Campbell, and Edward Thomas
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Seeger’s poems are not unworthy of the attention they have attracted. The book has not much to offer to the small public which wants nothing twice over, but it has a good deal to give to the public which will take what it likes in any amount. Seeger was serious about his work and spent pains over it. The work is well done, and so much out of date as to be almost a positive...
A Contemporary Thomist. An unsigned review of Epistemology; or, the Theory of Knowledge, by P. Coffey
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The library of the New Scholasticism becomes voluminous and formidable, and Father Coffey has written the longest and most detailed treatise of the Theory of Knowledge that has yet come out of his school. It is a handsome and impressive book; it is thorough; and so far as an outsider can judge, quite sound in its interpretation of the tradition. The Theory of Knowledge...
Ezra Pound: His Metric and Poetry
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“All talk on modern poetry, by people who know,” wrote Mr. Carl Sandburg
in Poetry, “ends with dragging in Ezra Pound somewhere. He may be
named only to be cursed as wanton and mocker, poseur, trifler and vagrant.
Or he may be classed as filling a niche today like that of Keats in a preceding
epoch. The point is, he will be mentioned.”
This is a simple statement of...
In Memory of Henry James
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Henry James has been dead for some time. The current of English literature was not appreciably altered by his work during his lifetime; and James will probably continue to be regarded as the extraordinarily clever but negligible curiosity. The current hardly matters; it hardly matters that very few people will read James. The “influence” of James hardly matters: to be influenced...
The Two Unfinished Novels. An unsigned review of The Sense of the Past and The Ivory Tower, by Henry James
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The two unfinished novels of James may easily be called the grave of his genius; it should be added, an impressive tomb; and they are as important as documents as the otherwise far more valuable reminiscences. They will at least enable every one to judge for himself how far he can go in the attempt to come to terms with James’s later novels. Probably the most instructive...
Unsigned reviews of fiction by Douglas Goldring and Edith Wharton
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It is usually presumed that a moral or political motive is a detriment to a novel, but here is evidence that the question cannot be stated in such simple terms. For Mr. Goldring’s book would be called definitely propagandist; it is a pacifist novel; and it is a novel with brilliant things and weak things in it. But the weakest things are not the propagandist things. Goldring...
Recent British Periodical Literature in Ethics
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As representative of recent periodical literature of ethical interest, two articles, or rather two series of articles, may be selected for exceptional importance. Philosophical speculation (in the pages of Mind) has taken the form chiefly of historical studies; practical investigation (in the pages of the Hibbert Journal, the Eugenics Review, and the Shield) has centred around...
Second review of The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, by Émile Durkheim. Trans. Joseph Ward Swain
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This book must be valued from three different points of view. It contains reinterpretations of the principal social phenomena of primitive peoples; it contains a theory of the genesis of knowledge with doubtful philosophic implications; and it contains what we may assume for the present to be M. Durkheim’s definitive pronouncement on the nature and the future of...
Second review of Elements of Folk Psychology: Outlines of a Psychological History of the Development of Mankind, by Wilhelm Wundt. Trans. Edward Leroy Schaub
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Durkheim’s Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse and Wundt’s Elemente der Völkerpsychologie appeared in the same year, 1912. In the preface to the present work Professor Wundt states the difference in method between the earlier Völkerpsychologie and this shorter book. “Instead of considering successively the main forms of expression of the folk mind, the present work...
Literature and the American Courts
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The Egoist wishes to call the attention of its readers to a case which was recently tried in the New York Courts, and which should be of interest in England as well as America to the small public which cares for literature. Miss Margaret C. Anderson, editress and owner of The Little Review, received complaints from numerous subscribers, who reported that they had not...
Verse Pleasant and Unpleasant. A review of Georgian Poetry, 1916-1917, ed. Edward Marsh; and Wheels: A Second Cycle, ed. Edith Sitwell
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Verse stands in constant need of what Samuel Butler calls a cross. The serious writer of verse must be prepared to cross himself with the best verse of other languages and the best prose of all languages. In Georgian poetry there is almost no crossing visible; it is inbred. It has developed a technique and a set of emotions all of its own. In the present volume there are...
To the Editor of The Egoist
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MADAM,–I shall be grateful to you if you will allow me to state in your
columns (in response to numerous inquiries) that to the best of my knowledge
and belief, Captain Arthur Eliot, joint author of “The Better ’Ole,” is
not, roughly speaking, a member of my family. –Yours, etc.,
T. S. Eliot...
A Victorian Sculptor. An unsigned review of Thomas Woolner, R.A., Sculptor and Poet: His Life in Letters, by Amy Woolner
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Thomas Woolner was a sculptor whose works and celebrity fully entitled him to the reward of a biographical volume; though the present is a very large one. To those who are interested chiefly in the sculptor’s works, this book will not have much to offer; it does not attempt a criticism of the artist; Miss Woolner’s modest paragraphs only bind together a series of...
Style and Thought. An unsigned review of Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays, by Bertrand Russell
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Mr. Russell’s latest volume, though not containing any hitherto unedited matter, is one of the most important that he has published. Containing two papers from Philosophical Essays, it supersedes that book, now out of print; and if we except the Principia, this and the Leibniz (which ought to be reprinted) are the essential books to possess. The Problems is too controversial...
Disjecta Membra. A review of Tendencies in Modern American Poetry, by Amy Lowell
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Miss Lowell, who not very long ago discovered six poets in France, has now mustered six poets from among her own nation. The six are E. A. Robinson, Frost, Masters, Sandburg, H. D., and Fletcher. In this book Miss Lowell has included much biographical information which casts new light upon the poets treated, and she further illuminates the subject with sentences on Life...
Professional, or . . . A review of The Stucco House, by Gilbert Cannan; and Hearts of Controversy, by Alice Meynell
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It is perhaps not too late to call attention to an article which appeared two months ago (January 31) in the Literary Supplement of The Times. The article was entitled “Professionalism in Art.” Like most of the leading articles in The Times Literary Supplement, it is altogether on the high plane; its tone is so refined and agreeable, its author so evidently one of ourselves, that...
A review of La guerra eterna e il dramma dell’esistenza, by Antonio Aliotta
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Professor Aliotta’s book has a topical title, but except for a patriotic passage at the end he confines himself to philosophical issues. His task is a popular presentation of a species of Humanism. Sig. Aliotta comes out of the idealistic tradition, and has developed a relative idealism, with a strong propension toward Pure Experience. His Empiricism stops at the subject-object...
A review of Brahmadarsanam, or Intuition of the Absolute: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hindu Philosophy, by Śrî Ānanda Āchārya
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A good brief introduction to Indian philosophy is still much to seek. Such a work ought to be both historical and comparative. It ought to draw the line very clearly between the religious intuition, which the various schools of philosophy all assumed, and the interpretations, which are widely diverse; it ought to make quite clear to the Occidental mind the difference between...
Second review of Religion and Science: A Philosophical Essay, by John Theodore Merz
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Clearly, this book belongs to a type. To be in love with emotion has been our affliction since Rousseau; to believe in belief is a form of the same malady. Mr. Merz knows Schleiermacher; he may or may not have read Maeterlinck, or Bergson, or Jean Jacques; but he cannot have escaped Goethe. As for romanticism in theology, we find one fundamental assumption: there is...
A review of Outlines of Jainism, by Jagmanderlal Jaini, ed. with preliminary note by F. W. Thomas
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A compact little treatise by a distinguished Jain. The author divides his exposition into Theology, Metaphysics, Ethics, and Ritual, and appends a number of Jain texts. The book is a compendium, not an interpretation into terms of Western philosophy–which is to its credit. It will appeal chiefly to the student of Sanskrit and Pali who has some acquaintance with Indian...
Observations. A review of Others, An Anthology of the New Verse, ed. Alfred Kreymborg; French Literary Studies, by T. B. Rudmose-Brown; and Appreciations and Depreciations: Irish Literary Studies, by Ernest A. Boyd
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Mr. Ford Madox Hueffer, in his Henry James, remarks upon “journalese,”
that flail of the Anglo-Saxon race, that infinite corruptor of the Anglo-Saxon mind, that destined and ultimate cause of the downfall of Anglo-Saxon empires, since the race that cannot either in allegories or in direct speech think clearly is doomed to fall before nations who can; and Japan...
Unsigned reviews of poetry by Ford Madox Hueffer, Susan Miles, Lancelot Hogben, and Pamela Glenconner
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The fact that “On Heaven” is obtainable in a book should not escape mention;
we can now throw away the number of Poetry for July 1914. The rest
of the book will not much “add to the author’s reputation.”
Dunch really deserves the quite favourable reviews which it has had from the majority of the side-whiskered weeklies. Miss (or Mrs.) Miles is a genre...
Contemporanea. A review, in part, of Tarr, by P. Wyndham Lewis; and The People’s Palace, by Sacheverell Sitwell
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The February number of the Little Review anthology of modern French poets beginning with Laforgue, Corbière, and Rimbaud, has made sufficient impression to enforce some comment by the literary press in England and America. It would seem from two of these notices that the struggle for civilization has not yet perceptibly affected the Anglo-Saxon point of...
Unsigned reviews of poetry and prose by James Joyce, Clive Bell, T. Sturge Moore, and William Butler Yeats
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This is a second edition, first published in 1907. This verse is good, very good; though it never would have excited much attention but for Joyce’s prose, still it would in any case have worn well. We infer from it that Mr. Joyce is probably something of a musician; it is lyric verse, and good lyric verse is very rare. It will be called “fragile,” but is substantial, with a great deal of thought...
A review of The World as Imagination (Series I), by Edward Douglas Fawcett
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The essential parts of the book reveal themselves as Part I, Chapter II, and Part II, Chapter I. Here the creative imagination is disclosed. Imagination is the “primeval reality, itself unresolved, into which all else can be resolved” (7); and Mr. Fawcett persuades us toward this reality by examining the rôle of imagination in scientific hypothesis. An hypothesis advanced in explanation...
New Philosophers. An unsigned review of Elements of Constructive Philosophy, by J. S. Mackenzie; The Self and Nature, by DeWitt H. Parker; and Locke’s Theory of Knowledge, by James Gibson
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The philosophical market does not at the present time manifest much liveliness. It is, indeed, very dull, if we compare it with the active first decade or first twelve years of the century. Then appeared the most important writings of Mr. Russell and M. Bergson, the vogue of William James was at its height, and the New Realists in America were dusting the arena under the...
Reviews of Contemporary Poetry by Geoffrey Faber, Eleanor Farjeon, E. F. A. Geach and D. E. A. Wallace, and Alec Waugh
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Miss Farjeon writes sonnets with Rossettian echoes, but looser in form, more Mrs. Browning. She is most agreeable in the lighter Christina ...
The Hawthorne Aspect
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My object is not to discuss critically even one phase or period of James, but merely to provide a note, Beitrag, toward any attempt to determine his antecedents, affinities, and “place.” Presumed that James’s relation to Balzac, to Turgenev, to anyone else on the continent is known and measured–I refer to Mr. Hueffer’s book and to Mr. Pound’s article –and presumed that his relation...
“TARR”. A second review of Tarr, by P. Wyndham Lewis
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The fact that Mr. Wyndham Lewis is known as a draughtsman and painter is not of the least consequence to his standing as a prose writer. To treat his writing as an outlet for his superabundant vitality, or a means on his part of satisfying intellectual passions and keeping his art healthy, cannot lead to accurate criticism. His prose must be judged quite independently of his...
A Note on Ezra Pound
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It is not that the critical faculty is wholly lacking to the English mind, but that our interest is seldom wholly in good literature, or in the goodness of anything as literature. To pick out “beauties” of Ezra Pound’s verse, or to expand upon his personality, would be irrelevant for different reasons. Thus when a certain Professor Phelps observes that “Rupert Brooke . . . was something...
Syllabus for a Tutorial Class in Modern English Literature
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I. The Earliest Forms of Drama (1)
Popular festival and religious rite. The “liturgical” drama. The Guild plays. Difference between “miracle” plays, “moralities,” and “interludes.” Examination of several examples. Their peculiar charm and their essential dramatic qualities. Read: Everyman, Abraham and Isaac, and the...
Studies in Contemporary Criticism, I. A review of George Meredith: A Study of His Works and Personality, by J. H. E. Crees
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The work of the critic is almost wholly comprehended in the “complementary activities” of comparison and analysis. The one activity implies the other; and together they provide the only way of asserting standards and of isolating a writer’s peculiar merits. In the dogmatic, or lazy, mind, comparison is supplied by judgment, analysis replaced by appreciation. Judgment...
A review of The Ascent of Olympus, by Rendel Harris
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Dr. Rendel Harris is an expert in that dizzy art of derivation and interpretation to which, in recent studies of comparative religion, we have become accustomed. He has every qualification of scholarship, ingenuity, and plausibility, and he makes his detective work exceedingly interesting. We are familiar with the evolution of the gods out of snakes; Dr. Harris now...
Studies in Contemporary Criticism, II. A review of Un poète de l’énergie, Émile Verhaeren: l’œuvre et l’homme, by Albert Mockel; and Pavannes and Divisions, by Ezra Pound
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There are different purposes, motives, and methods possible in criticism. For the reading public, some classification of these varieties would be useful: a classification which would enable the reader to determine immediately whether a critic fulfils any of the legitimate critical functions or fulfils more than one without confusion. I propose at some future date a convenient...
To the Editor of The Nation
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SIR,–As an American of some years’ residence in this country, I feel impelled to call attention to the conflict actually taking place between President Wilson and his domestic opponents. The information obtainable through English newspapers is meagre and the importance of the issue may easily be overlooked. It bears not only on the coming peace conference, but on...
Appendix. Philosophy A: Syllabus for an Introductory Course from the Pre-Socratics to the Renaissance
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Page Count: 896
Publication Year: 2014